Question, a bit weird. Is this hurts as in, my hand hurts, or the hammer hurts? Or is there a distinction?
my head hurts (because it was hit by a hammer) = הראש שלי כואב
the hammer hurts (because it hits heads) = הפטיש מכאיב
another thing - saying הראש שלי כואב is not correct. one would say כואב לי הראש. this applies to any part of the body that hurts. כואבת לי היד, כואבת לי הרגל, כואב לי האף. there is also an expression that we use to express sympathy - כואב לי הלב, meaning 'my heart hurts'.
Honestly it may be technically correct as well, but you just don't use the first form when referring to physical pain. It sounds super weird.
Thanks for the explanation and examples that are very useful and to the point :)
In the pa‘al conjugation, ”!זֶה כּוֹאֵב„ = “It hurts!” is intransitive, as in “My hand hurts [because I hit it with a hammer.]!”.
In the hif‘il conjugation, ”!זֶה מַכְאִיב„ = “It hurts!” is causative, as in “The hammer hurts [because I hit my hand with it.]!”.
Does this apply to abstract like my heart (feeling) hurts or my eye hurts (to see something bad)?
Does כואב here act as a verb or as a state of being hurt ? (That's because I'm trying to compare it with the Arabic word mu'lim )