"Can you read and write?"
Translation:Umiesz czytać i pisać?
It's because it's very general here. Can you read (generally) and write (generally)?
If you had something more specific: Can you read what is written here, it would be perfective "przeczytać". Can you write the word "grzegrzółka" would take "napisać".
So the perfective version would at least need some "this" which would be at least a bit specific thing that could be read/written.
It's hard to imagine a situation where you would address someone using a pronoun. If it's vocative then it really isn't a pronoun anymore, but a noun.
Examples in combination with another noun:
- Panie Profesorze! (one male)
- Pani Profesor! (one female)
- Panowie Profesorowie/Profesorzy! (more than one male)
- Panie Profesorki! (more than one female)
- Państwo Profesorstwo! (mixed group)
I'd add simple things like "Szanowny Panie" (Dear sir), "Szanowna Pani" (Dear Madame), "Panie Nowak" (Mr. Nowak), "Pani Kowalska" (Mr. Kowalska). Or "Panie i panowie" = "Szanowni państwo" (Ladies and gentlemen).
We discussed it further with Alik and there are a few comments to the Professor thing: I'd say that only the singular ones are in common usage, there just usually isn't need to use the plural ones (for example "Szanowni państwo" really seems polite enough to me even if everyone there is a professor).
And "profesorki" (plural of "profesorka") is one of those risky feminatives that are so controversial lately. Some people may consider it colloquial and even kinda offensive, some others would say it's completely normal.
Please also remember that unlike in English, where the 'feminist' tendency is to make everything gender-neutral, Polish goes completely the other way, feminism wants female nouns for professions where there wasn't a commonly used female variant so far. Another note: it seems that around 100 years ago Polish language used a lot more feminatives than it used 5 years ago.
Yes, Russian is the same way with feminine nouns, although in recent years it has become more common to use the masculine noun. Ona doktor, wrać, inżenier instead of doktorsza, wracicha, inżenierka.
We don't have a vocative case in Russian, that's why it was confusing to me. Except we do use a vocative case for God - Boże. Until I learned about vocative case, I always thought that Boże was just a nickname for God that everybody used. LOL
Yes, Russian was one of the first Slavic languages where the vocative fell out of use and was replaced by the nominative. The only place it can frequently be found nowadays is in old religious texts (отче наш, человече, владыко...).
Linguists have recently discovered a re-emerging vocative case in casual speech (Толь/Лен/Мам instead of Толя/Лена/Мама).