Translation:In a few years Earth will be a black hole.
Yes, but people can't always tell the difference, which is why jabramsohn's comment is necessary.
So, is the only difference between כמה being "how many" and being "a few" only the question mark or period?
Well actually it is a little more complicated because there is the possibility to change a question sentence to an expression sentence like אני יודע כמה כדורים יש בקופסה is an answer to כמה כדורים יש בקופסה? so it will be translated to "I know how many balls are in the box", while אני יודע שיש כמה כדורים בקופסה is not answering the question כמה so it will be translated to "I know there are some (or a few, context dependent) balls in the box".