A late answer, but no, those words are not interchangeable. עבודה refers to a job or work. So the sentence as written is potentially asking about the quality of the work (see the answer above by CAA15 for the alternative meaning). פועלים is referring to laborers or workers, as in the actual people doing the work. So if you used that word in this sentence, the meaning would change somewhat. You'd be asking do you want cheap workers versus asking do you want cheap work.
So what I mean is that עבודה זולה is "cheap job", whereas עבודה מקצועית is "professional job". One you want cheap labor (a cheap job is done by buying cheap labor) and the other is professional labor (a professional job by a professional). It could also mean "do you want a cheap job (as in, to work at a cheap job) or a professional one?"
Is the type of question differentiating between unskilled minimum pay earning jobs to jobs at high ranks? Like something you would hear at a university consultation with an angry consultor? "You want a good job or a bad job?!" What is the goal of the question, so I would underatand the meaning of it