No (just like in English, as far as I know, you don't "bake" a chicken). If you heat chicken in an oven you call it "roasting" in English, and לצלות in Hebrew. The only way you'd bake / תאפה chicken is as a filling in some pastry - and then you'd "bake the chicken pastry" תאפה את מאפה העוף.
But Luan asked about the occupation מבשל, which does exist, and I think would be synonym to טבח. But the only context I've heard it used is when one is employed in a kindergarten or daycare (and, alas, it's always been female, so I never heard מבשל as is, only מבשלת). I don't have a good theory why טבח came to be avoided in this context.
Well, the example you gave is not a good analogy, because one Hebrew phrase ליד can be translated into (at least) two English two ways "next to" and "beside". On the other hand, מבשל and מכין have their own translations, and they are not equivalents. They overlap only in a limited number of sentences. Bottom line, they are different verbs in both languages, otherwise if someone would get a sentence מכין שיעורי בית they might translate it as "cook homework" because they might learn that prepare is the same as cook. A native English speaker might not do that, but there are many non-English native speakers doing this course, and having many options in English for translating one Hebrew words becomes very difficult. But also for the contributors, who need to manually input all of those possibilities.