Does it hurt, are you in pain, are you hurting = asking if you have pain.
Does it hurt you = is something (action/person/object, etc.) being done to you that causing pain. Does it hurt you when it rains... (because it's not really common to say: does it hurt you). It sounds wrong.
First is asking about "hurt", second is asking if "it" is causing the hurt to you.
The translation isn't a good match for what people are saying the Hebrew is supposed to mean.
"Are" is a link verb, not a "passive verb". "Sore" is an adjective. "Are you sore?" is perfect English. It is not clear, though, if the given Hebrew sentence has the same meaning. My understanding is that it matches the Russian "Тебе больно?" which translates into English as "Does it hurt?" whereas the question "Are you sore?" is usually about the fatigue of muscles after exercising too much.
Good call on link over passive on the verb. It's been a while since grade school.
Apparently I responded to the wrong comment, I was replying as to why "does it sore you" not work.
My current limited understanding of Hebrew and Russian would agree with боль and כואב are approximately the same.
The Hebrew word כואב seems to be context sensitive and lean towards sore or hurt depending on how it is used, if I understand it correctly, it may be used as sore in the sense that after a workout your muscles will hurt.