"The apple is here, and the car is there."
Translation:Az alma itt van, az autó meg ott.
the thing is, they should go to different positions in the sentence.
Az alma itt van, és az autó ott van. - two loosely connected clauses. Like two clauses that happen to be true at the same time.
Az alma itt van, az autó meg ott (van). - contrasting. We have clauses about something common, filled with different information. ~ Location: alma - itt, autó - ott.
Az alma itt van, meg az autó ott van. - same as the first but... much worse tbh. For me, it has a "not giving a damn about what he/she is saying right now" feel. "The apple is here... plus the car is there, eh, I forgot to add."
- here, "van" is implied by the first clause of contrasting
- most of the time you can't omit van when talking about location, that's right
- With itt, ott and hol, it can be okay sometimes anyway xD "Itt az alma", for example, does work but it doesn't make "Itt van az alma" wrong
I think this example is worth explaining.
Pedig is right after the subject of contrasting. So, when you see "az pedig", "az" will turn into the subject - this is possible since "az" means "that", too. "Az autó." this can be a sentence, meaning "That's a car." ("Az egy autó" is also okay and less ambiguous..) So "Az autó ott" kinda works for "That's a car over there" giving you the whole sentence of: "The apple is here whereas that's a car over there." :DD