I use alas all the time, actually. Granted, I am a more dramatic person, but the point stands.
Well, important things come first. So, that's the negatıon. And, it is negating the verb, so that comes next. Finally, whatever is left.
Kind of an "order of importance".
But the negation does NOT necessarily mess up the word order. It just grabs whatever it is negating, and pulls it in close behind itself. Wherever it is. Sometimes that thing was already in the front, in that case you just attach a negation at the front, nothing else happens.
But there is so much room for flexibility...
Hmmm... so "nem" negates "vagyok" - turning "I am" into "I am not"? Do I have that right?
In English it is the adjective "well" that is negated, and the verb is left alone. Reckon it will take a while to get my head around this one...
I think it could be debated what is actually negated in either language. I am not qualified to do that. But I guess whatever works for you in making sense of it. :) After a while it will all make perfect sense, I am sure of it. :)
I always thought of it like it is negating the whole sentence, 'Jól vagyok'. We do that by negating the verb. This is a special case in that you can achieve the same effect by negating the adjective, but not all sentences work like that, this simple one does.
Just realised that what we negate in some Indo-European languages may indeed be the whole clause, nagyon érdekes!
You are very welcome, Ploomich, I am happy I could help!
Now, that we covered the word order, let me tell you about the order of letters in my user name... :D
I'm afraid it's not, believe me: I am Mexican and I am struggling (and enjoying it) just as any other Indo-European speaker taking this course, he he.
In most of the situations the word order is not fix in hungarian. Usually the most important words come first. So "sajnos nem vagyok jól", "nem vagyok jól sajnos", " nem jól vagyok sajnos" and "nem vagyok sajnos jól" are also correct.
Is "good" not another translation for "jó"? That's how I've always interpreted it.
That is correct I believe :) But I think that in this sentence "well" is the correct way to use that word. (My English spelling is not very good, so I can't explain it from that perspective, but "I'm doing good" is not grammatically correct. Although it is said a lot)
Maybe "jó" is the only translation for "good". And "jól" translates to "well", which stands for "in a good way", right?
Actually, it is teaching "sajnos", which is very easy to say. Can't be responsible for the translation though. :)
I find it a rather basic and very useful word, it can stand on its own as a sentence ("Sajnos."), which makes it easy to express sympathy, empathy and regret. E.g. "I have to go." "It keeps raining this week." "Our flight is cancelled." "You lost the key of my flat." You san answer all these sentences with this single word as a sentence: "Sajnos."
I don't know what your native language is but I think, in English, we tend not to say it very often because it's a complicated word. It doesn't feel like essential vocabulary. I can imagine this goes double for Spanish with desafortunadamente. I was a little bit surprised when I moved to Germany and heard children saying "leider" quite a lot and eventually I realised it's probably just because it's a simple word and we don't use it so much in English because it's bigger and clunkier.
It is actually a very basic concept ... it basically just means you don't like the content of the rest of the sentence.
In English: "I am sorry" is an apology, "unfortunately" is an adverb, so it's changing the meaning of the Hungarian a bit. You could say "I'm sorry to say" but it would be a bit old fashioned, and I would guess there's a separate Hungarian equivalent.
"I am not very good" sounds like you're saying you're not competent at something, rather than that you're not feeling well which is what I think the Hungarian sentence is implying.
Both of these are a bit fuzzy in English, especially the second one - people do answer "how are you?" by saying "Not good, I'm afraid" or something similar. But it's colloquial usage. Technically, jo = good (adjective) and jol = well (adverb), so "How are you (feeling)?" needs to be answered with "I am not (feeling) well".
Because "vagyok" is a conjugated verb which only goes with I. The verb for he/she is "van" (although in this context, "Sajnos nem van jól" is incorrect, because the negation of "van" is "nincs")