Lemme guess: Where we would stick a dummy subject "it," which doesn't refer to anything, Hungarian has none?
i think no. sometimes "it" can be translated as "ez" (like "this") or "az" (like "that"), but usually you just have to leave it from the translation.
Yeah, it is pretty much non-existent. Thinking of those very common phrases like "it is raining", "it is important", "yes, it is", Hungarian does not have the dummy subject. The easiest way is just to forget it. You either use a real subject or just omit it when the circumstance is right. But there is no "placeholder" subject.
"It is raining" - "Esik". Which literally means "it is falling". I omitted the subject, the rain, as that is the default subject. The full sentence would be "Esik az eső.". But just say "Esik" in front of Hungarians and they will all look out the window to verify the weather situation. Stick out your hand, palm up, to give it extra emphasis.
These "Esik" and "Havazik" are special usages even in Hungarian, called "mondatszó" (sentence word). There is hardly another one that implies every part of the grammatically correct sentence. "Esik" means "it is raining" while "havazik" means "it is snowing".
A teenage practical joke is exclaiming when the classmates write a paper "Havazik!". Usually everybody will look to the window immediately to realize that it is May and the sun is shining outside like a hell—and then the one who cracked the joke adds "nem ott, a másik oldalon!" (Not there, but on the other side!)
Don't tell anybody that I've told you...
Now the suggested translation is "It is evening here" that may cover another situation, too. When you make a transatlantic call and your friend from NY asks what will you do this afternoon, this is the right answer with the same English counterpart: "Itt este van".
"Itt" refers to the location (here) and explains that you are talking about the time deviation. Without a situation like this, we simply omit "there", too, because it is obvious (for us) that we're talking about the location we're in. This is why the Hungarian sentence in general is simply "Este van." without "itt".
Also note, that the usual word order is "Itt este van", and though "Este van itt" has the same literal meaning, it is less frequently used (almost never). °"Este itt van" is wrong for this context, that has very different meaning! ("Mikor érkezik Joe? – Este itt van." ——> "When will Joe arrive?" "He'll be here in the evening." –> I cannot imagine a situation now where "Este itt van" won't express future.)
I believe that "este" is the nominative, and "estét" is the accusative. So, "Jó estét kivánok", which literally means "I wish you (a) good evening", requires the accusative form, but in this sentence, "este" is the subject, so it is in the nominative.
Yep. Occasionally you have to include a binding vowel to make it easier to pronounce: gyerek - gyereket (child), nap - napot (day), ház - házat (house), tök - tököt (pumpkin). Sometimes the word will also slightly change its shape: víz - vizet (water), tükör - tükröt (mirror).
But all of those end with a -t.
Also note that it is a single -t every time. Later you'll see why it is important ;) (Perhaps it is more difficult for native speakers, but I can imagine that foreign learners may face the problem, too.)
I wish it was that easy. Each verb meaning has its own case that you have to memorize.