"alacsony" can mean "short" or "low". When "short", it can only refer to height. So, don't use it for "short distance". When "low", it pretty much matches the English usage.
In our language (Kazakh), we have alasa - short, low; and kişi (kişkentay, kişkene) - small. Maybe they are connected with alacsony and kicsi :)
The words are connected. We have many Kazakh (turk) words, because of the Kun (Cuman) settlers, and we have many old and modern turk words with other origines. We had lived together with turk tribes, and later in the modern times the Osman empire occupied our country.
Apparently 'holgy' (the o is the umlaut o with the two dots) is Lady, as in Ladies and Gentlemen.
Hölgyeim és uraim, that is correct.
That is literally "my ladies and my gentlemen".
And there is one more word: "asszony". I would say it is closest to "ma'am" in English. It can be used with adult women who are probably married. It is most commonly used in the possessive: "asszonyom" - "my ma'am".
And a similar term for young women is "kisasszony". The usage of these words is a bit formal. But anyway,
"Hölgyem"/"Asszonyom" - can be used similar to "ma'am" in English or "señora" in Spanish, for example.
"Kisasszony" - can be used similar to "Miss" in English" or "Señorita" in Spanish. So:
Excuse me, ma'am - Elnézést, hölgyem/asszonyom
Excuse me, Miss - Elnézést, kisasszony
No, it doesn't work with 'nincs'. Nincs = doesn't exist. Say 'nincs' instead of 'nem van'. Like 'Nincs autóm' = 'I don't have a car'
Looking for a mnemonic to distinguish between 'rövid' and 'alacsony'? For what it's worth, 'rövid' > Ovid (Roman poet), who wrote poetry, which can be short or long, but not high. Not the greatest mnem but should do.
I thought so too, but apparently in this context small would be 'kicsi'. That's what my GF says anyway.
Small means "kicsi" in every context. I would like to add, however, that in Hungarian you could refer to a short person as both "alacsony" or "kicsi". The literal translation of "alacsony", however, is indeed "short".
Would the Hungarian sentence work if you replaced "nem" with "nincs"? What are the rules on which one you use?
Nincs can only replace van to counter positive sentences. And van only appears in sentences (in 3rd person singular and plural but in plural it's vannak/nincsenek) that indicate a place, time or situations not description of treats in some way (using adjectives or nouns instead of adverbials). So in this sentence the only correct negative word is "nem".
If the sentence was something like: "The woman is not outside." then you could use "nincs." "A nő nincs kint."