Generally, with nikud, the final 'ה' would have a dot inside it (Mapik) which indicates it's a possessive suffix (it does have other uses as well) and not a normal female ending.
It is pronounced like a hard H (kalbaH vs kalba - where the 'ה' is silent), though in colloquial speech people don't bother.
Yes, but it should be noted that mapiq is a really extreme case of something that's "correct in Hebrew" but not actually used. Many Hebrew-speakers pronounce ח, כ differently, some change hard letters to softer appropriately (or vice versa) when it's not intuitive, like vekhesef, lidpok, etc. Very few also use accents properly, like gliDA and koVA. However, mapiq is so rare that I've never heard of anyone using it, ever. Even most texts with nikud that I've seen omit the mapiq.
I guess your point is about pronunciation rather than writing. I agree - almost. https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%93%D7%9F_%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%A8 (A myhological TV and radio announcer) clearly pronounces it...
Another nitpicking: /KOva/ is actually formally correct. Saying /koVA/ is a textbook example for over-correction (-:
Well, the funny thing is that the Tanakh distinguish between כּוֹבַ֫ע [kovA] as the absolute: Ezek 27.10 מָגֵן וְכוֹבַ֫ע shield and helmet and כּ֫וֹבַע [kOva] in the construct: 1Sam 15.5 כּ֫וֹבַע־נְחֹ֫שֶׁת a helmet of brass or Is 59.17 כּ֫וֹבַע־יְשׂוּעָה a helmet of salvation. So if you want to simplify this, you could have generalised either form, but the construct has won.
Well, in biblical Hebrew you differenciated כַּלְבָּה bitch from כַּלְבָּהּ her dog by inserting a מַפִּיק into the letter הֵא and pronouncing it [kalbah]. This may still be observed by careful readers of prayers and the scriptures, but מַפִּיק indicating a feminine suffix has always become mute in Modern Hebrew.