"Péter hallgatja a tanárt."
Translation:Péter is listening to the teacher.
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No, you can't translate this so directly. The grammar here is very different and the 'to' wouldn't be needed.
The suffix -gat/-get is a ... let's call it 'frequentator'. It usually indicates if something is done several times and/or with more intensity. For instance, you have beszél - to speak, and beszélget - to talk with one another. Or néz - to look, and nézeget - to look around or inspect. And just like this, the suffix makes hall - to hear - to a more instense hearing, with the meaning of 'to listen'.