"Congratulations, you speak Hebrew."
Translation:מזל טוב, אתה מדבר עברית.
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Okay, so for some reason, the options for me were: מזל טוב, אתה מדבר מה שלומך congratulations you speak how are you
congratulations we speak Hebrew מזל טוב, אתם מדברים עברית
congratulations you (fem) speak to the night ברכותיי, את מדברת להלילה
Obviously one is more correct than the others (is the last one nonsense, or is that an idiomatic phrase?) but it's not correct, is it?
There are several other expressions which are also used to congratulate someone for a accomplishment, like כל הכבוד and יישר כח! However, מזל טוב has also become a generic all-purpose congratulations used whenever something good happens in someone's life. It can be used when someone gets married, gets a new child (or grandchild), gets an award, gets an academic degree, gets a promotion, etc. etc.
That's an excellent question! (Which means that I am not at all sure of the answer... but I can speculate.)
The key here, I think, is that עברית is not actually a noun, and therefore not the object of the verb לדבר. I could say something like אני מכירה את השפה העברית - "I know the Hebrew language" - in which case you can clearly see that עברית is an adjective modifying the noun שפה, "language". In this case, the noun phrase השפה העברית is clearly a definite noun phrase, and you'll notice I did use את between the verb and the direct object.
So what's going on in our sentence, אתה מדבר עברית?
On the surface it looks like מדבר is a transitive verb and עברית is the direct object, but I think in this case, מדבר is an intransitive verb (as it most commonly is) and עברית should be considered an adverb modifying the verb: "You speak Hebrew-ly" or "You speak Hebrew-fashion", roughly. (Remember that Hebrew, unlike English, doesn't have any special morphology for adverbs, and almost any adjective can be used as an adverb in the appropriate circumstances.)