"Dolphins hunt here, too."
Translation:Itt delfinek is vadásznak.
The problem here is deciding where the emphasis is. Is the question that 'dolphins also hunt here (as well as whales...)' or that 'here also dolphins hunt' (as well as there..)'. The answer assumes the former, but from the sentence the latter is also possible, which would mean a word order of "Delfinek itt vadásznak is" would be possible. It would be helpful to underline the topic word in each sentence as word order in Hungarian can only be understood once the focus is clear.
Itt delfinek is vadásznak. = So, not only dolphins, but whales, sharks also hunt here.
Itt is delfinek vadásznak. = Delfinek vadásznak itt is. = I can't explain it, so I give an example: You visited e.g. The Mediterranean Sea and you saw some dolphins during hunting. But in this case, there weren't sharks, or other types of fish (I know, that dolphin isn't a type of fish, but it isn't important now) You said: "Itt delfinek vadásznak." 2 months later, you went to Lisbon, to swim in the Atlantic Ocean. You saw some dolphins again, they hunted again, and like 2 months before, there weren't other hunting fish. You said: "Itt is delfinek vadásznak. / Delfinek vadásznak itt is.
Delfinek itt vadásznak is. = Example: In the Indian Ocean, dolphins only eat, and love each other, but in the Adriatic Sea, they not only eat and love each other, but hunt for smaller fish.
Well, the explanation of the 2nd sentence is a bit long, but I hope, I could help you.
You are ignoring the English sentence and only concentratng on the possible Hungarian options. I am clear about what the Hungarian options are, the point is that the English sentence is ambiguous if that is the meaning of the Hungarian translation intended. Hungarians always put adverbs in the wrong place in Engish and if you wanted to distinguish those forms of emphasis in writing (because in speech we would use intonational prosody to make the difference clear) you would move the adverb around: "Dolphins also hunt here" versus "Dolphins hunt here, too" The problem here is with the English sentence, not the Hungarian. As I clearly state, the topic of the sentence needs to be clearly indicated, or a clearer English sentence needs to be used.
Part of the problem here, though, also, is that Duolingo Hungarian (so far as I've seen..) can't handle the difference between "also" and "too"; every translation so far of Hungarian "is" has been "too", where any sentence using "also" instead got rejected (I don't know if these have been fixed in the meantime). And for that matter, syntactically, it wants you to put that "too" at the end, in the sense of "I am here, too."
(All of that said, I too put a different arrangement of the same set of Hungarian words for this one, and got rejected, based on a different yet equally valid interpretation of the English sentence.. they really should automatically accept a lot more variations, but I guess its still Beta..and Duolingo).
I read on one of the other exercises that when you're making a general statement about a type of thing ("dolphins do X"), you need a definite article. Does one of the other words ("itt" or "is") make the article unnecessary?
You are right: a) with def. article - general statement; b) without article - some of them; c) with indef. article (sing. noun) - one of them. And here is a short rule for "is": it follows the word which is opposed to an other place (subject, verb) so there are 3 "good" places for it in this sentence: a delfinek is/vada'sznak is/itt is. Considering that "is" puts the word in focus the word order is [x "is" verb] or [verb "is"]: itt is vadásznak (here and there); a delfinek is vadásznak (dolphins and whales); vadásznak is (swim and hunt). The other words are not fixed: you can put them in the beginning or in the end. (itt) a delfinek is vadásznak (itt) etc...