"The English woman is beautiful."
Translation:Az angol nő szép.
It's because of the third person singular. If you use van, it expresses physical location, like: the English woman is at the bus stop = Az angol nő a buszmegállóban van. Omitting van expresses not physical location, but quality, like in this sentence, where the quality is beautiful (szép).
In Hungarian not only a verb can be the statement in a sentence but pronouns can take this role as well. It is called névszói állítmány. So the statement in this sentence is the word "szép*. And after this you don't need any further verbs.This behavior can be seen in third person singular/plural sentences (as Nitram wrote it above). I think Russian language works the same way - in this respect.
- Ez a nő szép.
- Ezek a nők szépek.
Oh, yes, Hungarian adjectives can have plural form just like in Italian. But at least they don't have gender.