I still get confused between בשבילכן and בשבילן and the masc forms. Also, I can never remember if an 'a' sound begins with an alef or an ayin; sometimes I spell עושה with an ayin which is correct, and sometimes with an alef, which is wrong. Any suggestions how to remember, because as a newbie to Hebrew the rules for spelling in Hebrew are extremely hard. I guess people will say the same thing exists in English, but I was speaking/writing English for 40 years. Please help with the rules of spelling; list and explain all the possible nuances that exist. Here are some just of the top of my head: 1. begins with alef or ayin 2. has a yud when it is heard or doesn't 3. has a vav when it is heard for doesn't 4. is the vav doubled or not 5. is it a kaf, hey or het - this one keep repeating and I can never spell the word correctly because I hear everything as an English 'h' sound 6. is it a sin or samech 7. is it a kuf or kaf 8. tet or tav 9. ends with alef or ayin 10. has a hey at end or not
I'll try to give some help, but mostly, you just need to memorize it.
Alef or ayin - there's no way to know really. You just need to remember the roots. For example, ע-ש-ה (to do) is always with ayin; future first person always starts with alef; etc.
Generally speaking, when the 'י is used as a consonant in the middle of a word it is doubled, and when it is the first letter it's a consonant as well. When it's single in the middle of a word it is usually a vowel. When it's adjacent to א or ה or ו, it could be either.
3.+4. Very similar to 2, when it's in the beginning or doubles = consonant, when it's single vowel.
5 . Well, 'ה makes a completely different sound - so that's easy to tell.
Between 'כ and 'ח it's hard to know. However, if it's a 'kh' sound in the beginning of the word, it must be 'ח since when 'כ is the first letter it's always 'k'.
6 . There's no way to tell except memorizing.
7 . There's no way to tell, but if there's a 'k' sound in the end of a word it must be 'ק since 'ך is always 'kh'. Also, words from foreign (Indo-European) origin like 'physics' = פיזיקה almost always use 'ק.
8 . There's no way to tell. Words from foreign origin use 'ט for 't' and 'ת for 'th'. For example, mathematics = מתמטיקה.
9 . Again, it's hard to tell. Remember though that when a word ends with 'ע, the previous vowel is always 'ah', so for example, "kele" (prison) can't be כלע. (It's כלא).
10 . Most words that end with 'ah' or 'eh' end with 'ה. If a word ends with a consonant, there's no 'ה. If it ends with 'oh' or 'uh' then 'ו is the final letter, and if it ends with 'eeh' then 'י is the final letter.
These are good general rules for the most part. One thing to note on the last one here though, ה can also be pronounced "oh" on the end of a word. It is uncommon, but it does happen. So "oh" on the end isn't always vav ו
A couple examples of this are: איפה and פה
Also "ee" on the end isn't always י Examples of this are קריא and להקיא