"The bus is not in the front but in the back."
Translation:A busz nem elöl van, hanem hátul.
"Van" in this case doesn't just describe something, it refers to physically being somewhere.
No, because the negated part is "elöl" and therefore "nem" needs to stand before that. "Nincs" is a replacement for "nem van" only if there is nothing inbetween.
No. "hanem" = "sondern" in German. "Pedig" doesn't have a meaning that fits here.
Apparently, Spanish sino is similar to German sondern and Hungarian hanem.
In English, the closest is probably "but rather" or "but instead" - sometimes we just use "but", but(!) that word also has other meanings so it may be confusing to learn simply "hanem = but".
hanem implies a contrast -- "not A, but (rather/instead) B".
'Pedig' is used to make comparison between two or more listed things = Something is...A, 'and what concerns to' an other thing is B; or Something is.. A, an other thing is B, ..., 'and what concerns to' the last thing it is Z Pl.: Az autó piros, a bicikli pedig fekete. The car is red, and what concerns the bike it is black. Az autó piros, a bicikli fekete, a roller pedig rózsaszín. The car is red, the bike it is black, and what concerns the roller it is pink.
'Hanem' is used to make a contrast to a negative sentence = ..not A.., but (rather).. B Pl.: Az autó nem piros, hanem kék. The car is not red, but (rather) blue.
Előtt is rather 'in front of sg.' or before sg. like an event or point in time. Elöl is just general 'in the front'.