Yes, but quả is also more poetic, and is used more in literature. Quả táo conjures an image of a perfect apple for me (personally), shiny and round, something to cherish, while trái táo is just an apple, nothing special :-)
Northerners use quả more while Southerners prefer to use trái. Quả is from Chinese while trái is a native Vietnamese word. In poetry and songs you will often hear trái more. For example, there's a famous song called "Trái tim không ngủ yên" (The heart is restless).