"The men are happy."
Er, it seems to happen quite often that you see words for the first time when you are actually strengthening a skill?
It's pretty much close to the meaning of the word 'are' regarding the 'role' of the word in the sentence. You may omit it in Hebrew however.. Unlike in English where you have to put the 'are'. That's why הגברים שמחים and הגברים הם שמחים are both legit
It serves as a copula. In this sentence, you don't need it, but it can be used emphatically - for example, if you wanted to say that the men are happy but the women are not.
there is no point. to be honest I would definitely say הגברים שמחים saying הגברים הם שמחים sounds odd to native ears and you'll most likely be corrected to dismiss the pronoun הם
Meushar is common but I think it is a deeper feeling than Sameach. They aren't completely the same.
I would say מאושר is an existential or philosophical happiness, whereas שמח is real-time experiential happiness.
I don't know but I do know that it's the name of a hit song in Israel right now, by Peer Tasi and Talisman: מאושרים: https://youtu.be/30t_P5y5QFk I've seen other songs, like Idan Amedi's titled Osher .. אושר So I don't think it's unusual. It comes up as joy/bliss /happiness in Reverso... but if you search YouTube most of the results are for Happy Days (tv)!
Why can't you translate "the bee is beautiful" > הדבורה היא יפה (with the personal pronoun) while you can translate "the men are happy" הגברים הם שמחים/ הגברים שמחים (in that case you have a choice). Is it because שמח is actually a verb?
As far as I know you can. I would report it. The course is still in beta so not all answers will be accepted right away.
I can't think of a time I ever added a personal pronoun. Personal pronouns sometimes replace the nominative in the sentence for example: he is pretty - הוא יפה they're going - הם הולכים but never the boys are leaving - הילדים הם הולכים you just say - הילדים הולכים