"Citromsárga vagy narancssárga?"
Translation:Yellow or orange?
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Anyone know which indo european languages have influenced hungarian vocabulary the most? I'm seeing tonnes of romance languange influences here. Naranja in spanish = orange, is just one example but I have come across many others that seem to range from french to spanish to english. I dont know much german but i supspect it has donated some vocab to the language as well.
Also not sure if Latin itself would have influenced it more during the roman empire or if the influence was dominant after Latin distilled itself into the various romance languages.
The Hungarian narancs derives from Italian narancia (modern arancia), in turn from Arabic / Persian نارنج (nāranj / nârenj), also the source for Spanish naranja. The Arabic borrowed the term from Persian, which got it ultimately from Sanskrit नारङ्ग (nāraṅga), which likely borrowed it from a southern Indian language of the Dravidian family.
Nouns for specific things like fruit that are likely geographically bound and also easily portable tend to be borrowed together with the things they label. This is one good example.
Hungarian got quite a bit from (Austrian) German, for instance paradicsom ("Paradeiser", tomato), karfiol (cauliflower), hokedli (stool), zsemle ("Semmel", bread roll), srég ("schräg", askew).
Also a lot of Slavic influence has taken place, of course. (And if I knew any Slavic language, I'd give proper examples, too.)
I am Russian and I see a lot familiar words in Hungarian (of course, some of them came to both Hungarian and Russian from other languages).
Food, for example: rozs - рожь (rozh) káposzta - капуста (kapusta) répa - репа (repa) cseresznye - черешня (chereshnya) szilva - слива (sliva)
My favorite example is Karáchony - Карачун (old Slavic spirit; winter soltice; "death" in old Russian, used in some od books)
I don't speak one bit slavic, but "pisztoly" came from Czech píšt'ala. And meant just pipe/tube originally. pištěti, pipe (smoking), should be the origin of that. I guess it is not hard to see what it means in English or German or Italian or French or Spanish or Portuguese.
There is also another very international word "dívány". Origin in persian dīvān دیوان. The word developed the sofa meaning then in Ottoman Turkish, then moved to France and from there went back eastwards. Not very common anymore (at least in Austria), but was/is known. I believe Hungarians prefer today kanapé, which is again French.
I am Ukrainian, and I see much Ukrainian in Hungarian. Vacsora = вечеря (vecheria), zsír = жир (zhyr), borona = борона (borona), szerda = середа (sereda), сukorka = цукерка (tsukerka, in most dialects tsukOrka), cseresznye = черешня (chereshnia), csonak = човник (chovnyk), jaszol = ясла (yasla), and many others.
At least cukor came from further east:
Old Indian śárkarā.
I would assume Indians were the first to grind it, so they were the first who needed a name.
And via Austrian German Zukker (nowadays identical to German Zucker) and the diminutive Zuckerl (Bonbon in German, which is based on French and Latin) it came to Hungary; cukor and cukorka, according to wiktionary.
Those are different fruits though.
English bitter orange, Hungarian keserű narancs, German Pomeranze or Bitterorange.
Which are not really orange, narancs or Orange.
Persian nārendsch and nāreng.
Latin: pomum aurantium. (golden apple)
Scientific name: Citrus × aurantium.
The "regular" orange is based on that Arab/ Indian origin too although meaning a different fruit!
Arab burtuqāl !!
portuguese laranja. Catalan taronja. French Italian arancia.
While many words have been swapped across borders and cultures I heard that as far as origins of Hungarian goes that it is most closely related to Finnish linguistically/structurally. However, that is completely based upon something I heard/read from several sources and could happily be incorrect.
That's about right, yes. Hungarian is not particularly close to Finnish (about as close as English is to Russian), but they are two of a few dozen languages that belong to the Uralic language family. Together with Estonian (also Uralic), Turkish (Turkic) and Maltese (Semitic, related to Arabic), these are the only national languages in Europe that are not Indo-European. (Of course depending on where exactly you draw the border of Europe.)
Finnish and Hungarian have the basic grammatical structures in common, like vowel harmony, agglutination and, relatedly, their extensive case system, as well as a couple of basic words that are similar to each other: