http://cleminfostrategies.com/whats-the-difference-between-prison-and-jail/ Basically, a jail is for people who have been arrested and are being held pending a plea agreement, trial, or sentencing. A prison is a secure facility that houses people who have been convicted of a felony criminal offense and are serving a sentence of (typically) 1 year or more. How are these differentiated in Hebrew?
It isn't always differentiated in English either. In Australia we don't often use 'prison' (although we do use the word 'prisoner') and almost always use 'jail' (or 'gaol'). We might possibly say 'he went to prison' (in the sense of its being an institution) but when referring to a specific building or holding facility we'd tend to say 'jail', regardless of the type.
If I wake up in one of these places, I'd like to know whether I'm just suffering from a hangover, or whether I've got amnesia and can't remember the past year. So, I'll yell to the C.O., "What is this place?" And I'd like to understand his answer.
They're Correctional Officers in US prisons. I guess that's a bit of "1984" newspeak. They don't guard. They correct.
There is a lot of confusion around this sentence. In Hebrew, prison guards (or "correctional officers") are סוהרים. If you say שוטרים you mean actual police officers. For example, if a police team brings new inmates.