Translation:Who is sneezing?
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Hungarians try to avoid more than two consonants clashing together, so they will often insert vowels.
tüsszenteni - tüsszentek - tüsszentesz - tüsszent - tüsszentünk - tüsszentetek - tüsszentenek
And for low vowels: tart (to hold)
tartani - tartok - tartasz - tart - tartunk - tartotok - tartanak - tartalak (for the I-you form)
Mercedes, you usually cannot have three or more consonants next to each other when dealing with Hungarian conjugation (barring the imperative). If the base verb happens to end with two different consonants, you'll need to use a buffer vowel if the verb suffix happens to start with a consonant as well. Compare the conjugations of vár ("to wait") and tart ("to hold"):
One exception to this regards verbs that end with '-nd' or '-ng', where you can choose whether you use the buffer vowel or not, as in "te mondsz" or "te mondasz" ("you say").
Also note that these buffer vowels are often left out in colloquial speech.
Thank you for your answer. I think that I understand what you mean but why is the suffix in "tártani" "tárt" and not "tárta" if I compare with "várni" "vár", just take away "ni" and one has the suffix, or not? But of course it would be a problem to conjugate "tártani" if the suffix would be "tárta". Is it why the suffix is "tárt"?
Mercedes, please note that a "suffix" is the bit at the end of a word. For example, the infinitive form várni has the suffix '-ni'. The vár bit is called the "root".
In Hungarian, the infinitive form is not the "most basic form" of the verb. That's why it's also not listed in a Hungarian dictionary. Instead, you'll find the present-tense ő forms there. That ő form usually doesn't have any suffixes (some have the suffix '-ik', though), and you can derive all other conjugations from the shape of that ő form.
The infinitive '-ni' suffix follows the same rule that all other verbal suffixes follow: if the root ends with two different consonants, you'll need to insert a buffer vowel. Tart becomes tartani, ért ("understand") becomes érteni, and mond ("say") will be either mondani or mondni. The infinitive form is not special.
Also note that Hungarian verb roots generally do not end with a vowel, so if you see something like kezdeni ("to begin"), you'll know that the second 'e' is a buffer vowel. So the root will be kezd.
(There are exactly five exceptions to that, which are verbs whose root consists of a consonant followed by a long vowel: nő ("grow"), lő ("shoot"), sző ("weave"), fő ("boil") and ró ("notch"). They follow a modified conjugation pattern.)
Thank you for your answer and refreshing my memory. I was only thinking about prefix and suffix and forgot root and now after your last explanation it becomes more understandable. I read the grammar parts in DL but I would like to find a book of Hungarian grammar in Swedish but I couldn't find one, så I save all the grammar from DL and I will save your answers as well. Thanks!
a little addition: tart and tár are two separate words.
tartani ~ to ... keep, hold, take, last, etc. [tart - (a) - ni]
tárni ~ (a kind of) open [tár - ni] = We are rarely used in this form, but we use it with more verbal prefixes or else.
[ajtót, ablakot] kitárni ~ to open [the window, door] (wide)
Szívét tárja valaki elé. ~ Open one's heart to somebody.
feltárni ~ (in the mine) open up; (archaeologist) excavate; (situation) reveal; (secret) disclose
etc., etc. ...