Why does Kościół become Kościele? Is there a rule for that sound change before the ending "e"? (i.e. ół -> ele)
Well, for sure ł can turn into l (stół -> stole, muł - mule, szkoła -> szkole), but usually the vowel stays... so I guess that kościół is a bit more irregular in this.
Goodness me, I forgot to mention Polish cases and declensions. Help! :) haha Honestly though I see English in such a different light after learning other languages. If I'm forced to understand structure, I start realizing that structure in English. (This isn't to say that eventually I won't have to think about which case to use)
Dzięki. Regarding Polish, I think spelling to pronunciation is much more regular than I'm used to English (even though I can't distinguish "cz" from "ć"). And in addition, not having to worry about articles and sometimes word order is helpful for me as an Anglophone. What are some things that were really difficult for you when you learned English? What aspects still trip you up?
I imagine learning when to use continuous/progressive mood for verbs (whatever it's called) was hard. "He sells ice cream. But today he is selling waffles too."
Hmmm... conditionals for sure, they are completely illogical to me. Just as everything connected with the sequence of tenses. I just googled "conditionals" and the first link teaches:
If Sarah is at school tomorrow, I will give her the books. - Jeśli Sara będzie jutro w szkole, przekażę jej książki.
So, 'being at school' is in the future because it's tomorrow, giving her the books is obviously also in the future... yet somehow one part of the English sentence uses present tense. Yeah, logic ;)
Also, maybe not very problematic, but Present Perfect and Past Perfect are just something that we don't really have, so it's not such a piece of cake.
Yeah... using the present tense for that conditional phrase is pretty illogical. And unfortunately, that way of speaking IS much more common (not just for this case but for many: If I succeed tomorrow, If I find my next job tomorrow...)
If Sarah is at school tomorrow... (more natural) vs. If Sarah will be at school tomorrow...
I have an interesting question... Why are imperfective verbs emphasized over perfective verbs? Are they just that more common in everyday speech?
It's very easy actually: until some moment (and I don't know if you reached it already), you only learn Present Tense. Which is pretty logical, of course that's the first tense to learn.
And perfective verbs... they refer to an action that is 'accomplished' (that's how I'd translate Polish "dokonany", whose official translation is "perfective"), done til the end and succesfully. So logically, it cannot be used in Present Tense at all, it's impossible. At the moment, I am eating. I could have eaten something 'succesfully' in the past or I can plan to eat something 'succesfully' in the future. But right now, I can only be in the middle of the process.
Of course the distinction isn't "imperfective = Present and perfective = Past/Future", imperfective can be used in all tenses, it just focuses on the process and not the result. But perfective can't be used in the Present Tense.
Wow that was a good reply. I definitely get it now.
"Imperfective can be used in all tenses, it just focuses on the process and not the result."
So perfective excludes the present tense because you "can only be in the middle of the process."
And since we learn Present tense first, it only makes sense to learn imperfective first, because only that mood? aspect? occurs in the present. Teraz rozumiem.
Having done a bit of research, in locative if the stem ends in one of several "historically hard" consonants (of which ł is one) then it changes to the historically soft counterpart and e is added. With other endings they pop on a u instead. This means something like teatr (which ends in the historically hard r with historically soft counterpart rz, even though rz is considered hard by modern definitions) goes to teatrze instead of teatrie or teatru, and likewise words ending in ł become -le, eg mówimy o stole. The confusion likely arises because many "historically hard" consonants shift by simply palatizing with i like the modern notion of softening, eg m->mi, etc, so when the stem ending is softened and an e added, you get things like -mie (which I guess makes domu an exception) . This is especially confusing because many tables used for teaching locative simply say the ending is -ie and leaves it at that
The staff doesn't want us to put cases in the hints because they display (used to display?) like any other word in some types of exercises, for example you'd have tiles like "church", "parents" and "Locative" :|