Translation:The athlete who is swimming under the bridge is young.
We really need a grammar point on all the aki(k)/ami(k)/amely(ek)/amelyik/etc. and clauses, and that sentences follow similar patterns OR accept all valid answers. At the moment this module is more about trying to remember each sentence, in terms of pronouns & structure, rather than learning the language.
It's not supposed to teach you "az a == the" but "az a ..., aki/amelyik ... == the ... who/which ...".
Similar to how "... ott, ahol ..." translates to "... where ..." (e.g. Ott sétálok, ahol a nő úszik "I walk where the woman swims") -- Hungarian has an additional pointing word (az, ott) which is not needed in the English translation of this kind of sentence.
That does not mean that az or ott are untranslated IN GENERAL -- just that this kind of relative sentence works differently in the two languages.
Because it isn't what the Hungarian says. Your sentence is about what the "young athlete" is doing - swimming. The Hungarian sentence is what the athlete swimming under the bridge is like - young.
Think of the questions "What is the young athlete doing" vs "What is the athlete like?".
There is no doubt about the difference in meaning, but I remain puzzled how an adjective modifying a subject becomes a direct object... And not just the DO, but so central to the interpretation. While I understand word order is looser and different in Hungarian from other western languages, I was wondering if it is a matter of experience or if there was a specific signal or word order that would make the "fiatal" more important. Am I making sense? In other words, I assume I'm missing something, so I want to ask, "What am I missing?"
"Az a sportoló fiatal, amelyik a híd alatt úszik." - is "That athlete is young who swims under the bridge".
If it was about the "young athlete" the "fiatal" would have to be directly in front of "sportoló" ie "fiatal sportoló"
"Az a fiatal sportoló , amelyik a híd alatt úszik." - is "That young athlete is the one who swims under the bridge". (I think - if I'm wrong Vvsey will no doubt say)
It is a myth that word order is looser in Hungarian in so much as although you can move the words around it changes the meaning and some things are fixed. For instance, if an adjective is an attribute is precedes the noun.