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It's fun the hear how the Brits and Americans interpret English differently. It took me a bit to get it, but the Brazilians use take (tomar) in a similar fashion to how we do in the US. In US English you can "take" a coffee, a meal, a shot of whiskey, etc., and as ricky_clarkson points out, Americans definitely assume to "take a bath" means to have bath. Although we can mean "bath" to mean "bathtub", we usually would say "take a bathtub" if we wanted to mean remove the actual bathtub from the bathroom.
That's a good one. In other languages "take a bath" sounds completely normal, so I guess American English is more similar to Portuguese in this case (or French, or Spanish). Also, to Americans, "The men have a bath" sounds like those men have/possess a bath of some sort. I guess they do...?
Not in this case (although it would be acceptable). "Tomar banho" is an idiomatic expression, and it is used without the article. Furthermore, it doesn't necessarily mean it's a bath, it might be a shower instead. The expression is not specific to which one are you having/taking. If you want to be specific you can use "banho de imersão" (bath) or "ducha" (shower).