"אני שונא את כולם!"
Translation:I hate everybody!
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First of all, is it worth mentioning that את is a preposition used to introduce a semantically definite direct object, not necessarily a grammatically/formally definite direct object.
In this sentence you have כולם (kulám), which is considered semantically definite (if you think of it as a contracted personal-pronoun-including form meaning "all of them" you will see why). Hence the את.
In your example you have כלום (klúm), which is obviously semantically indefinite, so you don't need the את. As for הכל, as far as I know, while it is semantically definite (and also grammatically definite due to the ה־), the use of את before it is optional.
(I'm also a learner, that's what I know so far.)
It could include "them all", as in all of the things. For example: "Do you like apples, oranges or grapes?" "I hate them all/all of them" "האם אתה אוהב תפוחים, תפוזים או ענבים?" "אני שונא את כולם" "Everything" is הכל. "What do you hate about it?" "I hate everything" "מה אתה שונא בו?" "אני שונא הכל"