"Mi van bent?"
Translation:What is inside?
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Nothing here suggests the use of accusative, as there is no direct object. We have the verb "to be" followed by the adverb "inside". Many times the sentence structure changes when translating, but in this case it remains exactly the same:
Interrogative + form of "to be" + adverb
So, here bent is an adverb, and not an inflection of a different word. I don't know what its etymological relation with the suffix "-ben" might be, but it certainly isn't an inflected form of it, because suffixes don't have inflections (their function is marking other words' inflections).
Your sentence is correct. There is a slight difference between 'bent' and 'benne': 'benne' refers to a definite object (e.g. asking 'what's in it' while pointing to a box), and is used more frequently. The duolingo sentence in everyday speech may only refer to rooms, buildings or large, enclosed spaces.