For me at least, haze doesn't refer to something that would make you late for work
Fog is something wet, but אֹ֫בֶךְ is more dry and dusty.
Could this be a haze caused by sand or dust
Yes, that is meant.
Is there a difference between "is late" and "comes late"?
If you want to stress the movement, you could say something like בָּא מְאֻחָר or מַגִּיעַ מְאֻחָר.