It's a general question, even though it uses the definite article and the definite conjugation of the verb. It's similar to things like this:
Szereted a népzenét? (Do you like folk music?)
Rajongok a rockért. (I'm a fan of rock.)
Szereted a matematikát? (Do you like math?)
Nem, inkább a kémiát szeretem. (No, I like chemistry)
Félsz a kutyáktól? (Are you afraid of dogs?)
In cases where the same sentence could be read both ways (Szereted az iskolát? could also be a question about a specific school), it's up to context to decide.
Is this now a specific school and thus definite, or school and going to class in general, like the English translation implies? Shouldn't it be "Do you like the (e.g. your) school?", then?