"I have brown eyes and my wife has green eyes."
Translation:Я маю карі очі, а моя дружина має зелені очі.
Conjunctions "і/та" are used to connect sentences that express similarity. Conjunction "а" is used to connect sentences that express contrast (in this case the meaning of "а" is close to "але" ("but")). For example:
- I have brown eyes and my wife has brown eyes. (You both have the same eye color. Similarity) -> Я маю карі очі і моя дружина має карі очі.
- I have brown eyes and my wife has green eyes. (You have different eye color. Contrast) -> Я маю карі очі, а моя дружина має зелені очі.
Here is a breakdown:
It's all about the agreement between the subjects, verbs and objects of the two sentences you want to connect:
Ти любиш макарони, і ти любиш/ненавидиш рис (the subject is the same, so nothing else matters)
Ти любиш макарони, і вона любить макарони (both love; both love pasta)
Ти любиш макарони, а вона ненавидить (hate) макарони (both are about pasta, but the action is different)
Ти любиш макарони, а вона любить рис (the action is the same, but the object is different)
Up until this lesson, the Ukrainian course has been teaching у [когось] є as proper translation of "[somebody] has."
Now it's teaching the verb мати instead. How do the two usages relate to one another, and how strict are the Ukrainian grammar rules in their usage, one versus the other?
"У мене (є)" is the same grammar as Russian, and "Я маю" is the same grammar as Polish, Slovak, and Czech, not to mention the rest of the Western world! The latter must come from the Ukrainians under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Galicia and Volhynia, while the former must come from Ukrainians under the Russian Empire.