In this day and age surely 'I am my fathers' daughter should also be correct...? '
The parent's genders aren't relevant here. Pais can be used in any case, even if they are both female. In that case of course, mães works too.
Where is the "a" in this sentence? To clarify: in English "I am a (or the) daughter of my parents" but where is it in this sentence - "Eu sou filha..."?
Achei que não fosse obrigatório, raciocinei assim:
I am the daughter...(eu sou a filha...)
I am daughter...(Eu sou filha..)
I am a daughter (Eu sou uma filha...)
"She is the daughter of Bill and Mary." Definite article to identify a specific person.
"She is a mother." Indefinite article to describe a mother. (a mãe de quem?)
(Um substantivo contável no singular precisa-se de artigo.)
Luizz is a Brazilian guy. Luizz is the Brazilian who says that he lives in a very hot city.
No... the daughter is A filha, the only daughter... daughter of someone is her affinity...
Who is she? She is the daughter of them or a daughter of someone else?
Quem é ela? Ela é a filha deles ou é filha de outras pessoas?
Who is she?
• She is their daughter (a filha deles).
• She is someone else's daughter. (a filha de outra pessoa)
It's not required, but you can put it. It changes the meaning very slightly, a bit like "I am the daughter of my parents" vs "I am my parents' daughter".
Thanks. What would we do without you, Paulenrique, Danmoller, Vivasaurus, Erudis, and Davu?
Except there's no difference in meaning between "I am the daughter of my parents" and "I am my parents' daughter". It's a slight change in style from a more native Germanic possessive to a Latinate prepositional phrase. It's a lousy sentence however you parse it.
It's a technically correct grammatical expression in Standard English -- it's not something people would say. If there ever were occasion to express this idea ('the apple doesn't fall far from the tree' is the phrase most would use), you'd say, 'I'm my parents' daughter.'