"הם רזים ואנחנו שמנים."
Translation:They are thin and we are fat.
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You are forgetting about the stative verbs (or whatever they are called) in Hebrew, which don't take the waw between the first and second radical in the present tense (their pattern is xAxEx instead of xOxEx) - ישן, גדל, חסר, ירא but also many more which are used as adjectives, but are technically verbs, which also follow the pattern - שמח, יפה, רעב, מלא, יבש, צמא and many more. So, רזה and שמן also fall into this category and they can indeed be both verbs and adjectives.
Oh yes, you are correct, I forgot about them. It is הוּא רָזָה וַאֲנִי שָׁמַ֫נְתִּי he was getting thinner and I was getting fatter in the past, הוּא יּרְזֶה וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמַן he will be getting thinner and I will be getting thinner, but in the present הוּא רָזֶה וַאֲנִי שָׁמֵן he is getting thinner and I am getting fatter. Thank you for the reminder!
Well, in the Bible a human being could be שָׁמֵן too: וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־מוֹאָב בָּעֵת הַהִיא כַּעֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים אִישׁ כָּל־שָׁמֵן וְכָל־אִישׁ חָיִל וְלֹא נִמְלַט אִישׁ Judges 3.29. Those portly men are seen here as something positive, being mighty warriors, but I do not doubt they are meant to be a bit pudgy,
I think you two had some confusion, because Jeremiah didn't indicate what שמן he referred to... /shamen/ - "fat" as in "a fat person" - appears in the bible, as you nicely found, but doesn't have much to do with milk. I guess Jeremiah meant /shuman/ - "fat" as in "the body fat". IIUC it is indeed rabbinic. The bible has חלב /chelev/ for animal fat. It seems indeed related to חלב /chalav/ - milk, though I'm not 100% certain how the connection goes, if at all.
Anyway, Jeremiah, I didn't quite understand your wondering. שמן /shemen/ "oil" appears in the bible, and it's not hard to see how it rolled into "fat" (the substance), they are close substances; and from that, to "a fat person".
No. Am not confused at all. I spoke to my Rabbi and he cleared it all up for me. It had nothing to do with animal fat vs non animal fat. It had to do with effort. Ascertain milk takes less effort then ascertaining oil. A person has to practice gluttony to become fat which is where the effort is. Thanks anyways.
Well, human fat is animal fat, since the biochemical composition of our mammalian bodies is identical. A more interesting example is its metaphorical use, like in Deut 32.14: חֵלֶב כִּלְיוֹת חִטָּה the kidney-fat of wheat`, i.e. the choicest wheat, but I think these examples (in the Psalms too) play with a comparison to good animal fat.