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You have to learn the german cases. "der" is the definite article for masculine nouns, while "die" is used for femenine ones, "das" is neutral. Every noun has its own article that has to be learned individualy, and though it might sound difficult trust me, it gets easier.
"ein" is used as an indefinite article (a / an) for masculine and neutral nouns, while "eine" is used only for femenine nouns. They change as they're used for different purposes within a sentence. Look up for "german cases" and pay special attention to the "dative case" (because "der" is used for femenine nouns there for indirect objects.)
I am answering the duo guestions correctly and I dont know what duo means..when there are new words why isnt there a way to tell the meaning ?
There is a way. Hover your mouse over the troublesome word. Duolingo will usually give you a translation. Warning: the translation isn't necessarily correct for the context in the particular sentence. In that case, all you can do is wait until you get it wrong and Duolingo gives you the right answer.
That itself is an exception, one of many others yet to be learned. "DAS Mädchen" is a neutral, singular noun meaning "The girl", while "DIE Mädchen" is plural, meaning "The girlS". The -chen at the end is part of the noun itself, which doesn't change during the transition from singular to plural.