I would prefer "Where do you run to from the airplane?" as the translation.
"Away" isn't really needed in the English sentence.
It's more important, however, to include the to which clarifies the difference between hova and hol.
(The meaning of "Where do you run away from the airplane?" would be totally unclear to me.)
No I think jsiehler is right. "Where do you run away from the airplane" implies either "Where is one physically located when one is running away from the airplane" i.e. at the airport , or "From which area in or around the airplane itself, do you make your escape", that is asking for a way out. I'm not Hungarian, but my understanding of the declined question word "hova" is that the emphasis here is on asking "to where" i.e. the destination of the runner. In that case "Where do you run to from the airplane" or "Where are you running to from the airplane" are the better translations
You folks are having so much fun here. :)
So, yes, "hova" (or "hová", which is the same thing) means "to where".
And the suffix "-tól"/"-től" means "from".
So, we already have "from" and "to". It should be enough, right? And it is enough. The sentence would work without the "el".
But then why do we also have "el"? What is the point of it?
The preverb "el-" means something like "away". But not exactly. It is a directional something, generally meaning from close by to a distance farther away.
Q: Hová mész? - Where are you going?
A: El. - Away.
So, that's why you will see it translated over and over again as "away".
But when in relation with a departure or a destination, it just blends in with the "from" or "to" meaning.
- I go away - Elmegyek
- I go away from home - Elmegyek otthonról.
- I leave (from) home - Elmegyek otthonról.
- I go to cinema - Elmegyek moziba.
- I go to work - Elmegyek dolgozni.
And the movement can also be the opposite:
- I bring the car (away) from the shop - Elhozom az autót a szervizből.
So, what exactly does "el-" mean?
No idea. But its role is much clearer if we think of it as something that indicates a "completed action".
You can add "el-" to all kinds of verbs that have nothing to do with any kind of movement in any direction. And it will make them a complete, finished action. Sometimes it can be translated as "away", sometimes not at all.
- I run - futok
I run away (from here) - elfutok (innen) - the action is complete, I am not here anymore
I am going to the store - Megyek a boltba
I go to the store - Elmegyek a boltba - the complete action, including the arrival
I am reading - Olvasok.
- I am reading this book - Olvasom ezt a könyvet.
I finish, completely read this book - Elolvasom ezt a könyvet.
Lunch is being prepared - Készül az ebéd.
Lunch is ready, the preparation is done - Elkészült az ebéd.
I am moving - Költözöm.
I have moved - Elköltöztem.
I forget a lot - Sokat felejtek.
I have forgotten - Elfelejtettem.
My money is running out - Fogy a pénzem.
- I have run out of money - Elfogyott a pénzem.
I could go on and on. But hopefully you see the idea.
So, back to the sentence above:
"Hova futsz el a repülőgéptől?"
Personally I think it would be more natural without the "el". But it is not incorrect at all. It is just strange. Because what it asks is this, and sorry for my English:
"What is the point up to which you are running from the airplane?"
So, it is not just a direction, but a completed action that ends at the destination that will be mentioned in the answer.
BTW, it is not just "el-" that adds this extra meaning to any verb. "Meg-" is another very versatile preverb, that has no specific meaning but is used all the time, just to indicate a complete action. But I think nearly all of them carry the sense of completeness within them. There are about a dozen very common preverbs.
One reason for the preverb being separated from the verb sometimes is to express a continuous sense:
- I walk up the stairs - Felmegyek a lépcsőn
- I am walking up the stairs - Megyek fel a lépcsőn
Sorry for the essay... I hope I helped. :)
I wrote "where are you running away to from the plane", which is rather clumsy but correct English, and which seems to represent the Hungarian sentence - but it was marked wrong. The correct translation offered by Duo seems to suggest a meaning like "in which airports do you run away from the plane", which is unlikely but possible in a rather surreal (Duo Hunglish?) world.