https://www.duolingo.com/ChristianofPeace

Tiu vs Tio

I just don't understand which one to use and when.

2 years ago

2 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/ionasky
ionasky
  • 25
  • 20
  • 15
  • 13
  • 12
  • 8
  • 8
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 959

This gets covered quite a lot as it confuses people, if you google or search on the duolingo forums for this you will get a longer and better answer than i can offer but the mainstay is that tiu is used when the thing that you are pointing out is a specific or named thing

This video might help https://youtu.be/0vc-wNwS98o

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
mizinamo
  • 20
  • 17
  • 16
  • 14
  • 14
  • 14
  • 13
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2

Short version: use tio when it stands along and tiu when it is before a noun.

Kio estas tio? "What is that?" (tio standing alone)

Kies estas tiu domo? "Whose is that house?" (tiu standing before a noun, domo)

Longer version:

tio is a demonstrative pronoun - it stands by itself and replaces a noun.

tiu is a demonstrative adjective or determiner - it stands before a noun and modifies it.

Now, in Esperanto, you can also have adjectives without a noun, if the noun is clear from context. In English, you can't usually do this -- you have to have a dummy noun "one" or "ones" instead.

For example, Mi havas bluan libron, vi havas flavan, kaj ŝi havas ruĝajn would be "I have a blue book, you have a yellow one, and she has red ones." Here, "yellow one" refers to a yellow book, not to anything which could be yellow.

tiu can also be used without a following noun, but the particular noun is also understood -- it can't be anything.

For example, Mia libro estas blua, sed tiu estas flava. "My book is blue, but that one is yellow." -- Here, tiu stands on its own, but it is short for tiu libro. It's definitely a book you're talking about, not an arbitrary thing.

So if you have been talking about books in the past (or elephants or houses or whatever) and the kind of noun is clear from context, you can see tiu by itself. Usually, an appropriate English translation will then be "that one" -- NOT "that" by itself.

And as a specific case of this, the understood noun can be "person" -- Kiu estas tiu? "Who is that one? = Who is that person?" or Mi renkontis virinon, kaj tiu diris al mi ... "I met a woman, and that one = that person said to me ...".

2 years ago
Learn Esperanto in just 5 minutes a day. For free.