"Szukam małej torby."
Translation:I am looking for a small bag.
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Well, you have to know what case is needed with a given verb, or a preposition. "szukać" needs Genitive, so "mała torba" is in Genitive.
I don't think there's a better way to learn this than just to learn by heart... You will make mistakes, of course, but at some time you will just know.
Well, there are rules about whether a genitive takes -i or -y.
The most important rule is that nouns ending in -ga or -ka have their genitives in -gi or -ki. Many of the fem. nouns encountered in this course end in -ka, so you get to see a lot of -ki genitives.
This goes some way to explain why "torba" -> "torby" but "torebka" -> "torebki" as mentioned in Jellei's response just above this conversation.
I think it would help learning a lot if when you click on a word it shows not only the meaning but also gender, number and case (and ideally even the root word). I made zero headway with the grammar despite reaching this point which expects quite a lot of grammatical knowledge. Eventually went and bought a book instead