"I will wear white clothes."
Translation:Gwisga i ddillad gwyn.
As explained in the course notes, forms of the verb bod (to be) need to be followed by 'n/yn in order to make the link to a following verb-noun. There is no mutation of the following verb-noun after this use of 'n/yn:
- Dw i'n gwisgo crys - I am wearing a shirt (the verb-noun is gwsigo - 'wearing')
- Bydda i'n gwisgo crys - I will be wearing a shirt
- Bydda i'n gwisgo dillad gwyn - I will be wearing white clothes
Things are differnt if you use the short-form of a verb. As explained in the notes, these do not need to be followed by 'n/yn, but their object needs to take a soft mutation:
- Gwisga i grys - I will wear a shirt. (crys)
- Gwisga i ddillad gwyn - I will wear white clothes. (dillad gwyn)
They are just variations of the same pattern. Both gwna i wisgo... and mi wna i wisgo... should be accepted for both sentences.
mi just in front of a verb like this is just a marker that the phrase is a positive one, not a negative or a question. It is more often used in north-west Wales than elsewhere. You may come across fe being used in the same way in parts of south and west Wales sometimes. They are optional, so there is no strict need to use them, just be aware that some people do.
You will see from the notes that the object of a short-form verb such as these takes a soft mutation. There are two different patterns that you can use here:
- Gwisga i ddillad gwyn - the verb is gwisga and the object - the things that I am wearing - is dillad gwyn, so dillad takes the mutation as it is the first element of the two words that make up the object.
- Gwna i wisgo dillad gwyn - the verb is gwna and the object in this case is what I am doing - gwisgo dillad gwyn - and so gwisgo takes the mutation since it is the first element of the object.
The above is probably a brilliant explanation, but I confess that I am still struggling. I had thought mutations were caused by the final letter of the preceeding word.
No, mutations (soft, nasal or aspirate) are never caused by the final letter of a preceding word.
There are probably 40-50-ish separate causes of mutations, depending on how you count them. There are only a few causes of aspirate and nasal mutations, so the majority are soft mutations. This course introduces only some of the causes of mutations, and they are introduced gradually and with explanations and examples in the notes that go with each section of the course.
Any Welsh grammar book will explain the mutations as well - 'Welsh Rules' (Heini Gruffudd) for example (used in many schools at GCSE and A level), or 'Learn Welsh - Grammar Guide for Learners (BBC) (a basic guide also available for download as a .pdf here http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/learnwelsh/pdf/welshgrammar_allrules.pdf).
The final letter of a preceding word or that of the following word does affect the form of 'r/y'yr that is used, but that is not a mutation.