"The bus is often here."
Translation:A busz gyakran van itt.
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An english word for this is "aarrgghh". It is the word to use when Hungarian word order seems random. We are told word order matters, but also that it doesn't matter. That the emphasis comes first, except when it doesn't. In this example, we could be emphasizing "the bus", or the fact that it is "here" (and not over there), or the "often-ness" (it is often here but not right now or sometimes in other places, etc.). It is difficult to guess which context is meant, which in turn makes answering correctly difficult.
I think the most natural interpretation of this sentence is that we are discussing the bus and saying that it is often here. So we place "A busz" at the start. Now "often" describes its being "here", so that serves "itt" like an adjective does a noun, so "gyakran itt" become an inseparable unit. And since we are advising that it is "often here", that becomes the focus and is placed before the verb. So we get "A busz gyakran itt van". I hope this helps and gets a nod from any more knowledgeable than myself.
And yet the correct translation for "The telephone is here in the afternoon" is presented as "A telefon itt van delután" the structure is the same as "a busz itt van gyakran" It seems like "in the afternoon" is at least as important as "frequently" in the earlier sentence, and it is at the end.
It's a wrong impression though. Would you say "The bus is here often"? Or "The bus is here always"? Certain words dedicated to frequency are more connected to the verb since their role is similar to stating vs negation, even in English.
At the end of the day, "délután" conveys more than just frequency. for me, "minden délután" starts to sound odd at the end but I wouldn't call it wrong. "gyakran" does nothing but it "qualifies" the action by frequency, it would be odd to change the tone of the sentence by putting it in the less important position.
I cannot judge the Hungarian of course, but in English, all four are reasonable:
He is here often.
He is often here.
He is here always.
He is always here.
There is almost no difference in meaning between the two orders in English. Some may be very slightly more natural in some cases than others, but the difference is slight and more up to personal preference. (I personally would think numbers 2 & 4 are more likely in a case where you are pointing someone out and discussing him, whereas number 1 may be slightly more natural when answering questions about someone who is not present... but other English speakers could easily see it differently---there is really no meaningful difference among the two orders. Emphasis would come via intonation here.
The third one ("He is here always.") may sound a little strange, but it is actually how Matthew 20:28 is frequently translated into English: "...I am with you always...."
Well, English usage is an ocean where Hungarian is a glass of water, not being a native, I can only judge statistically. I almost never heard the first and third sentence, if at all. And I'm almost sure the 2nd and 4th options wouldn't be legitimate for "in the afternoon" so the difference does exist.
For intonation, word order should suggest intonation in Hungarian. I don't think it's a good idea to try to override word order by a forced intonation, it would be odd at the very least. "The bus is here, by the way this is often the case." That's how it sounds. Probably the fact that there is no verbal structure for continuous actions doesn't help with it.
"Gyakran" seems to rather act like a modifier to the action - if you think about it, it sort of has a special place within the sentence in English as well. In "gyakran a busz itt van", "gyakran" feels just pointless, not really applying to everything, therefore it sounds fairly odd.