"That is not an apple, and this is not a chair."
Translation:Az nem alma, ez pedig nem szék.
I see what you mean. "Pedig" is an interesting word in Hungarian. It is used in negative sentences. By negative I mean it can be a negatory statement (which includes "no", "not", "none"...) or it's not good for me. It can mean "and" or "what's more" in a statement in which you deny two things, just like in this one above. So if you can say them in English like this "This/That/It is NOT a/an ..., what's more this/that/it is (also) NOT a/an ..." It can also mean "but" in negative sentences: "There's no apples, but I bought some yesterday" = "Nincs alma, pedig tegnap vettem" "It's raining but I wanted to play football". = "Esik az eső, pedig focizni akartam"
"Az nem az alma, pedig ez az alma " doesn't make sence.
This is very good, but I would like to point out a few things. This sentence does not make too much sense to me:
"There's no apples, but I bought some yesterday".
A better translation for "Nincs alma, pedig tegnap vettem" would be this:
"There are no apples despite the fact that I bought some yesterday".
For the sentence "Az nem az alma, pedig ez az alma", you need to use another word: "hanem".
"Az nem az alma, hanem ez az alma."
"Nem az az alma, hanem ez az alma"
These issues were extensively discussed earlier under some lessons, I wish I knew which ones. Maybe you can search for them in the Discussions section.
And one more thing: "pedig" can also be used in positive sentences. In that case it means something like "on the other hand":
"Ez egy alma, az pedig egy körte" - "This is an apple and that one (on the other hand) is a pear".
Translating these sentences with "and" or "but" is just the closest simple alternative, with some loss in translation. Mostly when it doesn't make too much of a difference.
This lesson seems to conflict with the one preceding it. In the previous lesson, "The girl is in the front, the boy is in the back" used "meg" as the connector, not "pedig". That usage seems contrary to pedig meaning OTOH or whereas. This lesson then uses pedig when seemingly meg would be the better choice. All-in-all, I am developing the sense that this Hungarian course is quite inconsistent, not due to the vagaries of the Hungarian language, but due to poorly thought-out design. Here we are at the early stages of learning Hungarian, and the authors choose to grind away on more advanced concepts of word order, and subtleties, instead of basic stuff fit for the basic level we're at.