Russian Verbs of Motion guidance. Answers to any perfective verbs of motion are here.
For those who are wondering if there is perfective aspects for multi-directional and one-direction verbs, this is the right place. Before I answer the question, let me define what Russian verbs of motion are. If you already know it, just skip all the way to the bottom for imperfective/perfective motion help.
Russian verbs of motion have two different types of verbs: One-direction, and multi-direction
A one directional verb (motion to one direction, straight to the destination, you are moving towards without stopping anywhere, no return). In present tense, they express that you are moving (going to a place) now. In the past tense, they express that you were moving (going to a place) in the past.
Multidirectional verbs are verbs of motion in which you go to a place and come back, moving with no goal, a round trip, you go to this place many times, there is no straight direction, instead, you go everywhere like a chicken haha. In the present, they express that you usually go (and come back) regularly to a place. In the past: they express used to go (and come back) regularly to a place.
Fun fact: An easy way to find which is what in a sentence is usually the Uni (one)-direction verbs have the location/destination expressed in the ACCUSATIVE aspect
Ex: ты уже бежишь на работу? (accusative. straight to the destination and never stopping anywhere else along the way)
Я иду в парк (accusative, you don't run in multiple directions within the park, just a straight path in a single instance). I walk TO the walk
Корабль плыл в Одессу- the boat goes (swam) to Odessa. I assume it's going there without stopping anywhere else, or just went there once.
Multi directional verbs are expressed in dative or prepositional case! They tend to have a word that expresses you do this many times or frequently, such as often, usually, every day, etc.
Ex: Я обычно хожу на работу пешком (even though it's accusative, the word обычно (usually) tells us you go there often on foot. Read the context of the sentence carefully! Think about it carefully!)
Я бегаю на стадионе - prepositional. Я хожу по парку - dative Каждое лето мы ездим в Москву - EVERY summer, we travel to Moscow (accusative, but the word "every..." implies you go there many times or often)
If this does not help, you can just simply memorize which verb is mult and which is one direction (although it will later on frustrate you. It is best to understand it and know it so you'll remember forever). OR just understand the situations, apply the correct verb that would apply to the best situation. Think about whether you do this trip many times or regularly on occasion, that is the best way to understand motion verbs.
exceptions: ****If no final destination (as in no sense as to where you are going, running around like a chicken :p without any particular direction), you use MULTIDIRECTIONAL VERBS. Ex: Я бегаю на стадионе I run IN the stadium Я хожу по парку I walk IN (around) the park
****If we want to say a very common phrase like "we went to the cinema (only once)", we will use the same verb as in "we used to go to the cinema (regularly). A multidirectional verb! O.O Мы ходили в кино вчера-we went to the cinema yesterday Мы ходили в кино, когда мы жили в Москве-We used to go to the cinema, when we were living in Moscow
This means that Мы ходили в кино means ALWAYS that we did the trip. home-cinema-home. The rest of the sentences (вчера/ когда....) will let us know if the trip was done ONCE or Many times.
On the other hand, a sentence like Мы шли в кино means ALWAYS that we did the trip. home-cinema. And that's why we have multi directional verbs and one direction verbs! ^_^
Perfective motion verbs!!!!!:: For Uni-directional/one direction verbs, there is a perfective aspect. Just simply add "по" to the uni direction verb and tada, you have a perfective aspect for one direction verbs!!! (Ура!!) :D :D :D
Ex: идти-ПОйти (irregular). ехать- ПОехать. везти-ПОвезти.
For multi-directional verbs, there is NO PERFECTIVE verbs regardless of prefixes. If you add prefix to the multidirectional verb, it is STILL imperfective (this has bugged me too, don't worry). In fact, the multidirectional verb loses it's multi sense, and becomes a unidirectional verb....... Adding a "по" to a multidirectional verb are used, they are just not a perfective sense. They would be imperfective. It would mean that the action is insignificant, or the action lasted a short while.
http://learnrussian.rt.com/grammar-tables/verbs-of-motion-with-the-prefix-po/ look at part 3 for multi verbs with по
Ex: Самолёт прилетает в Москву. The plane arrives (arrives by flying) in Moscow.
Самолёт улетает из Москвы. The plane departs (fly from) Moscow.
See how this is all multi-directional verbs but has a prefix? There is no perfect aspect and never will be, they are imperfective forever. A sense of definite direction straight to a destination. It's common to use the perfective single direction verb as a perfective verb in place of the multi direction perfective (hence why you go on websites like master Russian and find it's the same). YOUR PERFECTIVE FOR MULTI WOULD BE THE SAME AS PERFECTIVE SINGLE DIRECTION VERBS! But otherwise, THERE IS NO PERFECTIVE ASPECT FOR MULTI DIRECTIONAL VERBS!!!!!! NONE!!!
Ex: ходить (multi imperf)/ пойти (multi perf and also uni perf). Remember идти/пойти?
летать (multi imperf)/ полететь (multi perf AND uni perf). Remember лететь/полететь?
входить (multi imperf) /войти (multi perf, there is no uni perf that it shares once you add a prefix to a once uni verb other than по. It doesn't belong to any uni imperf of its kind since it doesn't exist. So a uni perf having a prefix is now only a perfective to one verb and not another verb). Basically, a new verb. NO UNI IMPERF AND NO UNI PERF ONCE YOU ADD A NEW PREFIX! ONLY MULTI NOW (even if it loses its multi sense). прилетать ( multi imperf)/прилететь ( multi perf, NO uni perf to any verb since it is technically a uni verb). вылетать / вылететь. подходить/ подойти
I hope this has helped you and has cleared whatever questions you have. If you have any more questions, let me know! ^_^
I found a video on YT which says there actually are perfective multidirectional verbs. Идти has пойти and ехать has поехать, but the video also said that the perfective of ходить is сходить and the perfective of ездить is съездить. The video was also made by a native Russian. What do you think about this, is it true?