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Slow Finnish - Chapter 12c - Haluaisin kupin teetä, kiitos

Akkusatiivin yksikkö - The accusative singular

The accusative singular looks like the genitive singular. If the partitive is used with uncertain amounts and continuous action, the accusative expresses certain amounts and finished action.

  • Syön mansikkaa. I am (in the process of) eating A strawberry.
  • Syön mansikan. I (will) eat THE (whole) strawberry.

Notice the way the English articles are used in the translations. In your average sentence (but not always), a word in the partitive is translated with a indefinite article and a word in the accusative with a definite article.

The genitive singular, as you remember, uses the same stem as the nominative plural. n is added to the stem. Let's go through the stem changes once more.


Astevaihtelu - Consonant gradation

k, p and t keep causing trouble! They trigger some changes in the stem disappearing or changing into other letters.

kk, pp and tt become k, p and t.

  • mustikka, mustikan
  • kuppi, kupin
  • tyttö, tytön

nk becomes ng.

  • Helsinki, Helsingin
  • kaupunki, kaupungin
  • patonki, patongin

lt changes into ll.

  • silta, sillan
  • kulta, kullan gold; darling

nt turns into nn

  • lintu, linnun
  • hinta, hinnan cost, price

t between two vowels becomes d.

  • pöytä, pöydän
  • äiti, äidin
  • setä, sedän
  • koti, kodin home

lk becomes l. Except when the lk is followed by i, in which case the consonant cluster turns into lj and the vowel changes into e.

  • jalka, jalan foot
  • veli, veljen

rk changes into r. Except when the rk is followed by i, in which case the consonant cluster changes into rj and the vowel changes into e.

  • märkä, märän wet
  • kurki, kurjen crane

k between two vowels disappears. In a few exceptions, the k becomes v or j.

  • sika, sian
  • aika, ajan time
  • luku, luvun number; chapter
  • poika, pojan

p between two vowels usually (but not always) changes into v.

  • voileipä, voileivän
  • rapu, ravun crab, crayfish
  • lupa, luvan permission

mp changes into mm. If the mp is followed by i, the vowel changes into e.

  • kampa, kamman comb
  • lampi, lammen pond

ht changes into hd. If the ht is followed by i, the vowel sometimes changes into e.

  • vahti, vahdin guard
  • sanomalehti, sanomalehden
  • tähti, tähden star

Muunlaiset muutokset - Other types of changes

If the word ends in e, another e is needed to keep the first one company.

  • perhe, perheen
  • lentokone, lentokoneen

nen becomes sen

  • hevonen, hevosen
  • nainen, naisen

New words that end with i have no stem changes. In older words, i turns into e.

  • kahvi, kahvin
  • tuoli, tuolin
  • järvi, järven lake
  • veitsi, veitsen
  • suomi, suomen
  • kieli, kielen

Words that end in si have the suffix den.

  • kuusi, kuuden six
  • vesi, veden
  • uusi, uuden
  • vuosi, vuoden year

Some exceptions.

  • lasi, lasin
  • keksi, keksin
  • kuusi, kuusen spruce

And yes, kuusi means both "six" and "spruce".


Harjoitus 1

Käännä englanniksi. - Translate into English.

  • Myyn pöydän ja neljä tuolia.
  • Haluatko lasin?
  • Ostamme sian ja lehmän.
  • Äiti, haluan lentokoneen!
  • Syömme voileivän.
  • Haluaisin kupin teetä, kiitos.
  • Nuoret miehet kirjoittavat uuden kirjan.
  • Juotte veden.
  • Etsin märän kissan.
  • Haluatko haarukan ja veitsen?
  • Maksan auton.
  • Kuuletko hevosen?

Harjoitus 2

Käännä suomeksi. - Translate into Finnish.

  • I write my father a/the book.
  • You (singular) read the new newspaper.
  • I drink the hot chocolate.
  • We will eat the filled baguette.
  • Do they want the table?
  • I want a horse and seven pigs!
  • I will pay for the sandwich.
  • Does he hear the music?
  • I will heat the pie.
  • I will take a/the coffee.
  • You (singular) will carry a/the book.
  • I will forget the Finnish language soon.

What you need now is a cup of coffee!

  • toimintaperiaate operating principle
  • aivot brains

And here is a link to the previous lessons.

Hei! :)

July 30, 2016

13 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

VASTAUKSET

Harjoitus 1

  • I sell a/the table and four chairs.
  • Do you want a/the glass?
  • We will buy the pig and the cow.
  • Mother, I want the aeroplane!
  • We (will) eat the sandwich.
  • I would like a cup of tea, please.
  • The young men (will) write a/the new book.
  • You drink the water.
  • I will look for/find the wet cat.
  • Do you want a/the fork and a/the knife?
  • I will pay for the car.
  • Do you hear the horse?

Harjoitus 2

  • Kirjoitan isälleni kirjan.
  • Luen uuden sanomalehden.
  • Juon kaakaon.
  • Syömme täytetyn patongin.
  • Haluavatko he pöydän?
  • Haluan hevosen ja seitsemän sikaa!
  • Maksan voileivän.
  • Kuuleeko hän musiikin?
  • Lämmitän piirakan.
  • Otan kahvin.
  • Kannat kirjan.
  • Unohdan suomen kielen pian.

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TeppoSaari

I was thinking that maybe some day Finnish will be found in the incubator. Then even I could participate...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

You can leave an application here! :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Brendan06

O My Goodness this is Amazing!!!! You should make a Blog


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/scarcerer

I never thought a comic strip on Duolingo would teach me the science behind men thinking with their genitals.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/widle

Ooh, a new lesson, hooray! :)

Done, kiitos. Nyt haluaisin kupin teetä.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Pierocasamia

pierocasamia - I don't often make comments, but I really must congratulate you on your clear explanations of tricky points of Finnish grammar. One can learn a phrase parrot fashion in Finnish, but I find myself saying, 'but why?' You have been able to answer succinctly many of my queries. Thank you! One other thing, 'genetive' is spelt 'genitive', - at least, on this side of the drink....


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

Thank you for your kind words. I fixed the spelling of genitive. This is a mistake I keep making over and over again. Thank you for pointing it out to me. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ordkan

Hyvää päivää, Mari, minulla on kysymys tästä aiheesta. Toivottavasti voit auttaa minua.

I have read here and there that the accusative singular can also look like the nominative singular, namely, taking no ending at all. Could you please elaborate a bit on that?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Timo-opettelee

Mari is probably the pro, so she'll correct whatever I get wrong here.

  • The accusative singular gets an ending -n , like so: "Pekka lukee kirjan" ("Pekka reads a book").
  • The nominative singular would be "kirja", so without the -n ending
  • However, in the command tense for singular (imperative) it can look like nominative. For example: "Lue kirja!" (Read the book, no -n ending)

This might help you along: http://www04.edu.fi/suomeaolehyva/soh1/soh1-gr10.htm


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

Kiitos, Timo! I will discuss this once we will move on to the imperative, which will happen soon (not the next chapter but the one after that). :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ordkan

Hei, Timo ja Mari, kiitos avusta! Löysin juuri tämän selityksen:

"A singular object takes no ending if the predicative verb is first or second person imperative, passive, or a verb expressing obligation with a subject in the genitive. Otherwise a singular object takes the ending -n." (Karlsson, Fred. Finnish: An Essential Grammar, Routledge, 2008, p. 161.)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

You can always rely on Fred Karlsson! :)

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