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Auxiliary Compound Verbs in Turkish, Japanese, and Korean

RuizAPR
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Officially all three of these languages are unique language families. However, I've heard of the theory that Turkish and other languages in its family are somehow distantly related to other isolated languages including the Japonic (Japanese) language family and Koreanic (Korean) language family. This is mostly discredited, but I definitely see some similarities; among those is that they are all Subject-Object-Verb languages, add case particles to their words, and the use of auxiliary compound verbs.

The Turkish language and culture have been influenced largely by Arabic, Persian, and French for centuries, just as the Korean and Japanese languages and cultures have been influenced largely by Chinese for centuries. All three languages experienced a huge surge in vocabulary by adopting many words from these other languages, as well as experienced influences in writing, clothing, cuisine, custom, and the arts.

With new words also comes a need to make new verbs. What I found interesting is that all three languages have an auxiliary compound verb meaning 'to do' that they use to form words with the loan words they adopted. In Turkish, this is 'etmek'. In Japanese this is 'する' (suru) or いたす (itasu) in humble speech. In Korean this is 하다 (hada). All three languages link a word that was once a loan word to form a new verb. The example I will use to illustrate this is 'to thank'.

Ex: 'gratitude', 'appreciation'
Turkish: teşekkür (from Arabic tašakkur)
Japanese: 感謝 (kansha) (from Chinese 感謝)
Korean: 감사 (gamsa) (also from Chinese 感謝)

Turkish: teşekkür etmek - to thank
Japanese: 感謝する - to thank
Korean: 감사하다 - to thank

Turkish: teşekkür ederim - I thank (you); Thank You
Japanese: 感謝します (kansha shimasu) - I thank (you); Thank You
Korean: 감사합니다 (gamsa habnida) - I thank (you); Thank You

I just found this extremely interesting. For those of you studying other languages that I may not know about, do you know any that use this same pattern of an auxiliary compound verb used to make new verbs with loan words? Do you know any other similarities there might be between these languages? Please let me know! Teşekkür ederim!

2 years ago

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Ektoraskan

I find the Japanese past tense suffix -mashita and the Turkish pluperfect -mişti to be similar.

Japanese can link verbs with -te; Turkish does this with -ip. EX: hon wo yonde, nemashita. / Kitap okuyup yattım. This is different from regular 'and' in both languages: to & ve.

Both Japanese and Turkish lose declensions in relative clauses.

JP: Watashi wa kanojo to hanashimashita. Kanojo wa Furansujin desu.

--> Watashi ga hanashita kanojo wa Furansujin desu.

TR: Ben kadın ile konuştum. Kadın Fransız.

--> Benim konuştuğum kadın Fransız. (no more 'ile')

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/tjweeks101
tjweeks101
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You are referring to the Altaic Family, the existence of which was hotly debated. Linguists today do not recognize it.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/s.rombaut
s.rombaut
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It has nothing to do with the Altaic family, but Swahili also has such a pattern. It uses the verb "piga" which generally means "to hit" or "to beat", but it can change meaning when combined with other words.

Piga makofi = to clap hands

Piga picha = to take a picture

Piga chafya = to sneeze

Piga deki = to wash the floor

And many many more...

1 year ago
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