Does "tạo ra" imply a creator as the English translation does or could you also translate it as "form" or "come to be" in this case?
"tạo ra" can imply "to form" or "come to be" by natural sense. In Vietnamese context, these words are rarely associated with the religious concept of a creator.
Not always, especially for things dealing with nature. E.g. Động đất mạnh có thể tạo ra sóng thần = powerful earthquakes could create tsunamis.
Regardless of the meaning, it seems to imply, as in English, an agent behind the action. Whether the ultimate agent is an intelligent being or not is another story!
Billyuns and billyuns of years ago