https://www.duolingo.com/profile/benny_ns

Saying "every..." in Polish

I am very puzzled about the ways of saying "every", "each", "everything" and "everyone" in Polish.

I encountered the words "każdy", "wszyscy", "wszystko" and "wszystkie" in the determiners skill, but I couldn't find any explanation on when to use which.

What I know for sure is that English "everything" corresponds to the Polish "wszystko" (as a pronoun) and the Polish "każdy" is the same as "each", and "every" in English.. Everything else, I have no idea.

I am very confused about "wszyscy" and "wszystkie", as they appear as both pronouns and adjectives in the dictionary.

(Here as pronoun: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wszyscy#Polish and https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wszystkie#Polish)

(Here as adjective: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wszystek#Polish)

What's up with these?

Also, one of the sentences in the course is: "Lubię wszystkie dzieci". But I thought "wszystkie" means "everything/everyone"! If I say "Lubię każde dziecko", would it mean the same thing?

Can someone explain please? :)

August 1, 2016

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/VarHyid

"Wszyscy" is basically "wszystko" if you're referring to people. Who was at the party? Wszyscy. Who was dancing? Wszyscy. In other words, "wszystko" = everything, "wszyscy" = everyone.

Now, "wszystkie" would be the equivalent of "all". It may or may not refer to people so you can say "Wszystkie dzieci" (All children) as well as "Wszystkie słowa" (All words).

"Każde/każdy/każda" is the closest to "each" so you can use it if you refer to everyone or everything, but you want to emphasize each individual, for example "Lubię każde dziecko" is something a preschool teacher could say when asked if they have a favourite child in the group (and deny it saying "no, I like each and every child equally").

August 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/benny_ns

Thank you for your answer!

Another thing would be is that when do you use the adjective form (wszystek, wszystka, etc)? It almost seems like they are useless if you can just use "wszystkie" whenever you want to say "all".

August 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/VarHyid

I'm a native Polish speaker and I've never used the words "wszystek" and "wszystka" in my life :)

August 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Jellei

That does sound quite old-fashioned, if not archaic. And poetic, probably. The line "Non omnis moriar" by Horace is translated as "Nie wszystek umrę".

August 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/chartsman

Just a little precision to make things clearer. The main meaning of all the five pronouns is basically the same ("every", "all"), they just differ by gender. As there are 5 genders in Polish, here's how it goes:

KAŻDY - r. męski (masculine, singular)

KAŻDA - r. żeński (feminine, singular)

KAŻDE - r. nijaki (neuter, singular)

WSZYSCY - r. męskoosobowy (masculine personal, plural)

WSZYSTKIE - r. niemęskoosobowy (non-masculine personal, plural)


każdy mężczyzna - every man

każdy dom - every house

każda kobieta - every woman

każda rodzina - every family

każde dziecko - every child

każde zdanie - every sentence

wszyscy chłopcy - all boys

wszystkie domy - all houses

wszystkie dziewczyny - all girls

wszystkie rzeczy - all things

wszystkie dzieci - all children

wszystkie okna - all windows


WSZYSTKO on the other hand is a general term for "everything" the same way WSZYSCY is used to describe "everybody".

August 29, 2016
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