Saying "every..." in Polish
I am very puzzled about the ways of saying "every", "each", "everything" and "everyone" in Polish.
I encountered the words "każdy", "wszyscy", "wszystko" and "wszystkie" in the determiners skill, but I couldn't find any explanation on when to use which.
What I know for sure is that English "everything" corresponds to the Polish "wszystko" (as a pronoun) and the Polish "każdy" is the same as "each", and "every" in English.. Everything else, I have no idea.
I am very confused about "wszyscy" and "wszystkie", as they appear as both pronouns and adjectives in the dictionary.
(Here as adjective: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wszystek#Polish)
What's up with these?
Also, one of the sentences in the course is: "Lubię wszystkie dzieci". But I thought "wszystkie" means "everything/everyone"! If I say "Lubię każde dziecko", would it mean the same thing?
Can someone explain please? :)
"Wszyscy" is basically "wszystko" if you're referring to people. Who was at the party? Wszyscy. Who was dancing? Wszyscy. In other words, "wszystko" = everything, "wszyscy" = everyone.
Now, "wszystkie" would be the equivalent of "all". It may or may not refer to people so you can say "Wszystkie dzieci" (All children) as well as "Wszystkie słowa" (All words).
"Każde/każdy/każda" is the closest to "each" so you can use it if you refer to everyone or everything, but you want to emphasize each individual, for example "Lubię każde dziecko" is something a preschool teacher could say when asked if they have a favourite child in the group (and deny it saying "no, I like each and every child equally").
Just a little precision to make things clearer. The main meaning of all the five pronouns is basically the same ("every", "all"), they just differ by gender. As there are 5 genders in Polish, here's how it goes:
KAŻDY - r. męski (masculine, singular)
KAŻDA - r. żeński (feminine, singular)
KAŻDE - r. nijaki (neuter, singular)
WSZYSCY - r. męskoosobowy (masculine personal, plural)
WSZYSTKIE - r. niemęskoosobowy (non-masculine personal, plural)
każdy mężczyzna - every man
każdy dom - every house
każda kobieta - every woman
każda rodzina - every family
każde dziecko - every child
każde zdanie - every sentence
wszyscy chłopcy - all boys
wszystkie domy - all houses
wszystkie dziewczyny - all girls
wszystkie rzeczy - all things
wszystkie dzieci - all children
wszystkie okna - all windows
WSZYSTKO on the other hand is a general term for "everything" the same way WSZYSCY is used to describe "everybody".