Saying "every..." in Polish
I am very puzzled about the ways of saying "every", "each", "everything" and "everyone" in Polish.
I encountered the words "każdy", "wszyscy", "wszystko" and "wszystkie" in the determiners skill, but I couldn't find any explanation on when to use which.
What I know for sure is that English "everything" corresponds to the Polish "wszystko" (as a pronoun) and the Polish "każdy" is the same as "each", and "every" in English.. Everything else, I have no idea.
I am very confused about "wszyscy" and "wszystkie", as they appear as both pronouns and adjectives in the dictionary.
(Here as adjective: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wszystek#Polish)
What's up with these?
Also, one of the sentences in the course is: "Lubię wszystkie dzieci". But I thought "wszystkie" means "everything/everyone"! If I say "Lubię każde dziecko", would it mean the same thing?
Can someone explain please? :)
"Wszyscy" is basically "wszystko" if you're referring to people. Who was at the party? Wszyscy. Who was dancing? Wszyscy. In other words, "wszystko" = everything, "wszyscy" = everyone.
Now, "wszystkie" would be the equivalent of "all". It may or may not refer to people so you can say "Wszystkie dzieci" (All children) as well as "Wszystkie słowa" (All words).
"Każde/każdy/każda" is the closest to "each" so you can use it if you refer to everyone or everything, but you want to emphasize each individual, for example "Lubię każde dziecko" is something a preschool teacher could say when asked if they have a favourite child in the group (and deny it saying "no, I like each and every child equally").
Thank you for your answer!
Another thing would be is that when do you use the adjective form (wszystek, wszystka, etc)? It almost seems like they are useless if you can just use "wszystkie" whenever you want to say "all".
I'm a native Polish speaker and I've never used the words "wszystek" and "wszystka" in my life :)
That does sound quite old-fashioned, if not archaic. And poetic, probably. The line "Non omnis moriar" by Horace is translated as "Nie wszystek umrę".
Just a little precision to make things clearer. The main meaning of all the five pronouns is basically the same ("every", "all"), they just differ by gender. As there are 5 genders in Polish, here's how it goes:
KAŻDY - r. męski (masculine, singular)
KAŻDA - r. żeński (feminine, singular)
KAŻDE - r. nijaki (neuter, singular)
WSZYSCY - r. męskoosobowy (masculine personal, plural)
WSZYSTKIE - r. niemęskoosobowy (non-masculine personal, plural)
każdy mężczyzna - every man
każdy dom - every house
każda kobieta - every woman
każda rodzina - every family
każde dziecko - every child
każde zdanie - every sentence
wszyscy chłopcy - all boys
wszystkie domy - all houses
wszystkie dziewczyny - all girls
wszystkie rzeczy - all things
wszystkie dzieci - all children
wszystkie okna - all windows
WSZYSTKO on the other hand is a general term for "everything" the same way WSZYSCY is used to describe "everybody".