Translation:The doctors are not moving to Japan, but to England.
Do Hungarians also call the UK "England"? I'm not even British (although I am a geography nerd) and it annoys me, so should I get used to correcting people in Hungarian too? (I think the French do as well :/ )
I think so, that in the English speach, in front of the countries' name need the "the".
"To the Japan"? No, it is generally not needed. But there are a few contries that do need it: "To the United States", "to the United Kingdom", "to the Netherlands".
Yes, this is correct, and unfortunately there is not much logic behind which countries' names do require "the" and which don't (although the vast majority do not). Also, it changes over time: For most of my life, we said "The Ukraine" but now the fashion is not to do so.
Here's a BBC article about it, if anyone's interested in that sort of thing.
I haven't actually read the article, and don't actually know the rules, but it seems like you use the if:
The country is plural: the United States, the Netherlands, the Bahamas, the Philippines, (Maldives may or may not be an exception here; I'm not sure) etc., or if:
The country's name includes the type of government: the United Kingdom, the Peoples' Republic of China, etc. Similarly, "France" and "Russia" don't need articles, but "the French Republic" and "the Russian Federation" do.
"The Ukraine" is a matter of personal taste AFAIK, although everyone I know, myself included, just says "Ukraine", probably because it doesn't meet either of the above requirements. Amirite?
I'd restate the second rule as not "government" but "common noun" -- that would also cover things such as "the Isle of Man" (not a country, but still) or "the Ivory Coast", where "isle" and "coast" are not types of government but are common nouns.
And that Ukraine kind of started out as if it were a common noun (meaning something like "area at the edge or border; borderlands") - and that moving away from that was part of differentiating Ukraine as not merely "an area at the edge of the Soviet Union" but a country in its own right, with "Ukraine" merely serving as a proper noun, no longer a common noun.
Good point. Or maybe someday I'll form a type of government called an "isle" just to confuse everyone.
I might also add a couple more confusions I've discovered:
Not all countries ending in -s are plural - notably, Belarus and Mauritius are exempt from that rule. I mean, of course there's no such thing as a belaru, but there's no such thing as a bahama either (not in English anyway - I know it means "shallow sea" in Spanish), so that's a kind of weak defence.
The Gambia defies all logic.
River names often take "the" (the Nile, the Amazon), thus you have "the Congo" (river) vs. "Congo" (country).
"The Gambia" is also a river; I wonder whether this influenced the name of the country?
It is a rather odd exception otherwise, yes.