Just to mention that we would also say "I would prefer something else to eat."
Thanks Jellei, but I am still confused, could you elaborate a bit more please. I hope I got it right. So, I can't say "I would like to eat..." - correct? I can only say "I would rather like to eat..."
"I would like" from the Polish perspective is literally "I would want" (chciałbym/chciałabym), which I think English doesn't really use much. Anyway, your answer is of course very close, but we don't allow changing the verb into a different one when translating.