I thought this would be phrased as: אני שותה מים מן הכוס שלי. I'm familiar with using the preposition מ combined with a pronoun (like ממני) but is it common to use the the preposition מ with the definite article ה before a noun?? Maybe i just missed that one back in the day :)
Yes, it is very common. It is by far the most common way of saying 'from the'.
- From the sea: מהים
- From the box: מהקופסה
אני לומד מאבא שלי עברית. החתול רוצה ממך את הכריך. In both of these sentences the preposition comes before the object. אני שותה מים מהכוס שלי. The object comes first?
Another participant (AdamSomething) explained it thoroughly in another exercise in this lesson. If you missed it, in short - both orders are possible, in all sentences. Typically the thing that comes first after the verb is already known or established in the conversation, and the thing that comes last is what you want to stress.
Is there a rule when there's a hey after the prefix/preposition? Before we were told it wasn't necessary just implied and the vowel would change depending on if "the" was going to be in there. What did I miss? Thanks