Translation:The frog is jumping above the table, to the shelf.
Both of those sound fine to me. But "jumps above the table" seems different because "jump" is more of an action verb. To me, "jumps above the table" can mean either (1) jumps around, while remaining in the space above the table [fölött] or (2) jumps to a location that is higher than the table and ends up there [fölé, I think].
"Jumps over the table" can't mean (1). It can sometimes mean (2), but usually its meaning is (3) jumps through the space above the table and ends up on the other side [maybe something involving át]. Overall, this is just a tricky one to translate—I think both "over" and "above" should be accepted.
Does it specify a location, or a destination of movement? I thought the latter. The shelf is above the table and that's where the frog jumps to.
Above sounds odd to me as I'd use that only for locations.
But over the table sounds odd here as well because to me, it usually indicates motion that starts on one side of the table, has its mid-point above the table, and ends on the other side of the table -- rather than ending at a point which is still above the table.
I'm not sure of a good way to say this in English. Perhaps "The frog jumps onto the shelf over the table", completely ignoring the "az asztal fölé" and merely implying it by stating that the shelf is (location) over the table.
"Fölé" specifies a movement to a position that is above the table.
So, how odd does "... went above and beyond ..." sound to the native English ear? It sounds good to me.
Anyway, the point is, Hungarian has these very specific to/at/from type of indicators, and it is apparently very difficult to accurately translate them to English. One can only try.
I think we can recommend Turkish to anyone who wants some more exposure to this phenomenon, as they have a very similar system of locational and directional suffixes and postpositions. And I think it has less special cases and exceptions than Hungarian.
"The frog jumps up above the table onto the shelf" sounds the best to me. "Jumps up" implies motion and direction, and "above the table" is the final destination.
As an aside, "went above and beyond" is an idiomatic expression in English meaning, "did more than is normally expected." Someone who makes more effort and accomplishes more than would usually be expected of that person is said to go "above and beyond" their duties.
I'll chip in with my thoughts and feelings - we can't ignore the verb. Or in other words, the context. "Over" can very well simply mean the same as "above" - " the lamp is hanging over the table" - but whereas "hanging over" and "hanging above" mean the same to me, that's not the same with "jumping above" and "jumping over". There's an implication of "crossing over". It's the verb that offers a variety of possible meanings. I don't think it's going to be easy to analyse. For instance, the association with "crossing over" is still there but somewhat weaker with "the helicopter is flying over the ocean" - I primarily visualise the helicopter crossing over - and significantly weaker with "the helicopter is flying over the city". "Over" can mean the same as "above", but it can mean more, but you won't see this from the table, the ocean or the city. Context, and an anticipation of the meaning out of a variety of possible meanings.
That's correct, the shelf is not on the table. The table is probably at the wall and, higher above it, there is a shelf on the wall. And that shelf is the target location for the frog. So the frog takes a huge leap, and lands straight on the shelf, above the table. It does not touch the table.
I was so shocked at that athletic frog. I think he jumped "clear over the table onto the shelf," thereby not even considering to land on the table on the way. It was a big frog or a little table. We can make a page in a children's book with this sentence and I can see the illustration.