"הכותל המערבי היה מלא באנשים."
Translation:The Western Wall was full of people.
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Well, yes, the construction with a preposition is correct too. But the construct form of the adjective is already good biblical style, like Jer 6.11 עִם מְלֵא יָמִים with him who is full of days (מְלֵא being the construct of מָלֵא). The noun after the adjective limits the domain, for which the adjective is true: חוֹלַת־אַהֲבָה sick of love, יְפֵה־תֹּ֫אַר fair of form i.e. good-locking, נְקִי כַפַּ֫יִם clean as regards hands, חֲסַר־כֹּחַ lacking force, i.e. weak.
Well, מַעֲרָבִי western is an adjective, not a noun, therefore it is not used here in a construct chain and the article is needed for both the noun and its attributive adjective (like e.g. הַגֶּ֫בֶר הַטּוֹב the good man). כֹּ֫תֶל־הַמַּעֲרָבִי would mean the wall of the westerner.