Why is next month in miejscownik? I can kind of understand April being the mianownik but...
Most sentences are usually put the other way round: the first part (X) is in Nominative, the second one (Y) in Instrumental (because it's Instrumental - Narzędnik, not Miejscownik = Locative). And this one could be written that way as well: Kwiecień jest następnym miesiącem. The question is what kind of 'question' we want to answer: the original sentence talks about 'what is the next month', while my sentence talks about April.
And as usual I'm gonna do some self-advertisement and recommend my guide here, especially part 1,5.
"Następny miesiąc to kwiecień" would actually be probably more natural, but the course creators want to show a variety of options.
Dzięki! I also got instrumental case confused with miejscownik. Instrumental should be narzędnik and not miejscownik(locative).
No, not really. It's kinda like "every square is a rectangle, but not every rectangle is a square". In this way, "(every) April is a month, but not every month is April". On the one hand, you have "next month" here, but it still would be very weird. When you put something into Instrumental, it kinda 'defines' the other part of the sentence.
"Następny miesiąc to kwiecień" would be perfectly okay.
I wrote something more about it here, part 1,5.
Short answer: April is instrumental because we're defining. Just like "jestem chłopcem".
In "Jestem chłopcem" or "Ja jestem chłopcem" it is clear to me that "ja" is the subject of the verb "jestem", and what follows (defining what I am) is in the instrumental. No problem.
My problem with "Następnym miesiącem jest kwiecień" is that I didn't see it as "the other way around".
It might be possible to see it that way if I had interpreted the English to be "April is the next month", but this is something I probably wouldn't ever say. I would say "Next month is April." in which case "Next month" would be the subject of the verb.
Even if I turned it around, I would say "April is next month.", which isn't a definition. (When is April? April is next month, or, April is three months from now).
Maybe my problem here is that the English sentence seems a bit unnatural to me.
You can't put "kwiecień" in Instrumental, because that's like saying "The next month is an April". You cannot have 'an April', you just have 'April'. But you can have 'a month'.
Is it possible here to say : Następny miesiąc to kwiecień. (?), or does that carry a different meaning ?
How to you say, then, "Next month is April", which in English has a slightly different connotation from "The next (following) month is April".
Yes, you can say "Następny miesiąc to kwiecień." and it's accepted.
"Next month is April." is actually the basic English answer...
wow how come this construction works but not "jutro jest sobotą"? or does it have to be "jutrem jest sobota" to work?
You cannot say like that. "Jutro" is not a noun here, so you cannot use the structure type "X is Y".
Jutro as an adverb:
- The next day
- Jutro jest sobota. - It is Saturday tomorrow.
- Jutro będzie lepiej. - Tomorrow will be better.
- Jutro zobaczymy co robić. - We will see tomorrow what to do.
- Undefined future
- Byliśmy zwodzeni że jutro będzie lepiej, ale minęły lata, a nigdy nie było lepiej. - We had been deluded that tomorrow would be better, but many years have passed and it never was.
Jutro as a noun
- The next day
- Panie i panowie, na dzisiaj to już koniec, ale zapraszamy państwa na jutro - Ladies and gentelmen, it is over for today, but we invite you for tomorrow.
- Poczekaj do jutra. - Wait until tomorrow.
- Zacznę oszczędzać od jutra. - From tomorrow, I will start economising
- Undefined future
- Bez dnia dzisiejszego nie ma jutra - There is no tomorrow without today.
I find it helpful to liken this to the English active and passive. April (subject of the sentence) is next month. (Active because the subjet precedes the verb.) Next month is April (Passive because the subject of the sentence follows the verb) So, put the polish sentence in the same order Noun (subject) verb then the rest. Kwiecień jest następnym miesiącem. Now swap Kwiecień and następnym miesiącem. It doesnt always work that simply with other polich verbs, they get conjugated differently in the passive, but you should get the picture.